Reading- Real Exam Questions

January 2020 some Most Repeated Questions

 

Reading- Reading and writing: Fill in the blanks

 

1) Below is a text with blanks.  Select the appropriate answer choice for each blank.

Richard Morris, of the school of accounting at the University of NSW, which requires an entrance score in the top 5 percent of students, says attendance has been a problem since the late 1990s.

"Sometimes in the lectures we've only got about one-third of students...............  attending," he said. "It definitely is a problem. If you don't turn up to class you're missing out on the whole.................  of the experience: you don't think a whole lot, you don't engage in debates with other students - or with your teachers."

It is not all................, said Professor John Dearn, a Pro-Vice-Chancellor at the University of Canberra, who said the internet was...............  the way students access and use information. "It is strange that despite all the evidence as to their ineffectiveness...................,  lectures seem to persist in our universities."

 

1) involved, participated, enrolled, reserved
2) richness, varieties, thickness, heaviness
3) doom, bright, groom, sad
4) changing, exchanging, transforming, transporting
5) typical, traditional, classical, academic

 

 

2) Below is a text with blanks.  Select the appropriate answer choice for each blank.

According to the literature, the history of vaccination can be traced back to as early as the 7th century when the monks in India tried to..............  themselves by drinking snake venom. The first vaccination was inoculation with human smallpox, a practice widely carried out in ancient India, Arabia, and China. This............  of vaccination.................  collecting pus from a patient suffering from mild form of smallpox virus infection and inoculating the sample to a healthy human, which later led to a minor infection.

 

This method was first introduced in England by a Greek named E. Timoni. However, this method had a risk of spreading smallpox in the community and even worsening the health ................. of the person who received the inoculation.

 

but continued to be universalized. Smallpox became a preventable disease by injecting pus extracted from a human infected with cowpox virus. Jenner named the substance "vaccine" after the Latin word "controversyWhile the use of human smallpox vaccine was controversial, E. Jenner came up with bovine smallpox vaccine in 1796; this new method also faced vacca" which means "cow," and thus the process of giving vaccine became "vaccination".

 

1) immunize, cure, serve, treat
2) way, method, approach, mean
3) made of,  made from, consisted of,  origin from
4) condition, situation, circumstance, character

 

3) Below is a text with blanks.  Select the appropriate answer choice for each blank.

The horned desert viper’s ability to hunt at night has always puzzled biologists. Though it lies with its head buried in the sand, it can...........  with great..........  as soon as prey appears. “Sometimes you even see the snake fly up and whirl round in the air to strike a mouse passing behind it,” says Bruce Young, a biologist at Washburn University in Topeka, Kansas.

 

Now, Young and physicists Leo van Hemmen and Paul Friedel at the Technical University of Munich in Germany have..........  a computer............  of the snake’s auditory system to explain how the snake “hears” its prey without really having the ears for it.

 

Although the vipers have.............  ears that can hear...............  between 200 and 1000 hertz, it is not the sound of the mouse scurrying about that they are detecting. “The snakes don’t have external eardrums,” says van Hemmen. “So unless the mouse wears boots and starts stamping, the snake won’t hear it.”

 

1) work, strike, comply, stab

2) carefulness, roughness, precision, exactness

3) invented, exploited, made, develop

4) model, software, system, module 

5)external, internal, outer, inner

6) volumes, sequences, frequencies, amplitudes 

 

4) Below is a text with blanks.  Select the appropriate answer choice for each blank.

When I enrolled in my master's course at Oxford last year, I had come straight from medical school with the decision to leave clinical science for good. Thinking back, I realize that I didn't put very much...................  on this decision at the time. But today, I more clearly understand the................  of leaving my original profession. When I meet old friends who are now physicians and surgeons, I sense how our views on medical problems have. They scrutinize the effects of disease and try to eliminate or alleviate them; I try to understand how they come about in the first place. I feel happier working on this side of the problem, although I do occasionally miss clinical work and seeing patients. However, when I think about the rate at which my medical skills and knowledge have....................., the years spent reading weighty medical textbooks, the hours spent at the bedside, I sometimes wonder if these years were partly a waste of time now that I am pursuing a research career.

Nonetheless, I know the value of my medical education. It is easy to forget the importance of the biosciences when working with model organisms in basic research that seem to have nothing to do with a sick child or a suffering elderly person. Yet, I still have vivid memories of the cruel kaleidoscope of severe diseases and of how they can....................  a human being. I hope to retain these memories as a guide in my current occupation.

 

 

 

1) effort, thought, stress, weight

2) excuses, consequences, reasons, origins

3) met, differentiated, diverged, converted

4) dissipated, weakened, vanished, faded

5) destroy, invade, defeat,strike

 

 

5) Below is a text with blanks.  Select the appropriate answer choice for each blank.

Bronze Age drinking vessels were being made of sheet metal, primarily bronze or gold. However, the peak of feasting—and in particular, of the 'political' type of feast—came in the late Hallstatt period (about 600- 450 bc), soon after the foundation of the Greek.............  of Massalia (Marseille) at the mouth of the Rhone. From that date on, the blood of the grape began to make its way north and east along major river systems together with imported metal and ceramic drinking vessels from the Greek world.  .................was thus added to the list of mood-altering beverages — such as mead and ale (see box overleaf) — available to establish social networks in Iron Age Europe. Attic pottery fragments found at hillforts such as Heuneburg in Germany and luxury goods such as the monumental 5th century Greek bronze krater (or wine-mixing vessel) found at Vix in Burgundy supply archaeological evidence of this interaction. Organic...........such as leather or wooden wine barrels may also have traveled north into Europe but have not survived. It is unknown what goods were....................  in return, but they may have included salted meat, hides, timber, amber and slaves.

 

 1) migration, colony, invade, people
2) hem, tea, detergent, wine
3) materials, products, containers, ingredient
4) exchanged,  traded, switched, transferred

 

Answers: Click here
 

Reading- Multiple  Choice choose Multiple Answers

 

 

1) Read the text and answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

Why do some countries drive on the left, while others – the majority- drive on the right? In fact, those that drive on the left about twenty-five percent of the world’s countries and are, apart from the UK itself, mostly countries that were British colonies: India, South Africa, Singapore, Jamaica, and so on. Japan does too, although it wasn’t a colony, and as late as 2009, Samoa switched from driving on the right largely because they wanted to buy right-hand drive cars made in Japan and New Zealand. The Romans introduced the custom of keeping to the left, a habit that was reinforced in medieval times when riders throughout Europe passed oncoming strangers sword arm to sword arm – this idea is based on the fact that the majority of people are right-handed. An increase in horse traffic towards the end of the 18th century meant that the convention gained strength, but it was not put into law until 1835. Legend lias it that Napoleon is responsible for making the European countries which he conquered keep to the right, for the simple reason either that he was left-handed himself, or that he wanted to be different from his enemy, England. This is most probably nonsense, but an Emperor’s whims can go a long way. So France, obviously, and Spain, the Netherlands and other countries Napoleon overran used this system, and over the years other countries adopted the practice to make crossing borders easier and safer. The latest European country to convert was Sweden, in 1967.makeup

 

According to the text, which of the countries listed below drive on the left?

  1.  Japan

  2.  Scotland

  3.  Spain

  4. Samoa

  5. South Africa

  6. Germany

 

2) Read the text and answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

In 1861, Matthew Brady, a well-known portrait photographer, approached President Lincoln requesting permission to move freely about the country photographing the Civil War. Lincoln granted him permission to travel anywhere with the Union armies, and his record of this conflict brought home to millions the horrors of war.Brady wasn’t the first official war photographer. Six years earlier, Roger Fenton, a lawyer and amateur photographer, had returned from the Crimea, having been personally chosen by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. However, his instructions were more likely to have been to send back work that boosted morale back home rather than the terrible realities of war. Brady’s coverage of the war made him a household name, but he had hundreds of assistants, and it’s even possible that he didn’t take any of the 7,000 pictures that were marketed under his name. But no one else could have organized the large army of photographers needed to cover the broad sweep of the war and provided access to many leading generals and politicians.

 

Which of the following statements are true of Matthew Brady?

  1.  He was given permission to travel anywhere in the US.

  2.  He was able to give his photographers introductions to politicians.

  3.  He took as many as seven thousand pictures of the war.

  4.  He was responsible for organizing a large number of photographers.

  5.  Before the war he had been an amateur photographer.

 

 

3) Read the text and answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

Wheat is one of most primitive types of food in the world. Its discovery contributed to the development of Homo-sapiens from hunters to farmers. Civilization arose where soil was fertile and wheat could be produced. The Stone Age farmers in the Middle East 9000 years ago were perhaps the first to cultivate cereal grams, such as wheat and barley. They also developed bread wheat from a cross of wild wheat and grasses. Studies on Neolithic women in Syria highlight damage to their toes, knees and vertebrate as they had to spend long hours kneeling before saddle-shaped stones to crush grains. The finding that grain could be grounded to make a powder called a meal must have been fantastic because raw wheat is distasteful. This powder called meal was used to make porridge or gruel until baking was discovered. The baked flour was more enjoyable and tasty. Sieve or baskets were made using horse hair or papyrus to separate the ground meal into coarse bran particles and white flour. Later ancient Romans crushed the grain and sifted the flour through linen, twice. This was an expensive procedure that only the aristocracy could afford. The white flour obtained was called “pollen” meaning a fine powder. The Romans were the pioneers in the birth of the milling industry using animals or slaves to drive the wheels to grind wheat. It was only in the 11th century that water and windmills appeared to grind the wheat.


Which of the following statements is/are not true in accordance with the information given in the above passage?

  1. Extracting fine pollen from raw wheat used to be an expensive process.

  2.  Discovery of wheat helped primitive societies to lead a nomadic life.

  3.  Crushing wheat with the help of saddle-shaped stones used to be a difficult task for ancient women.

  4.  In ancient Rome, milling was always done with the help of slaves.

  5.  Baked wheat flour is tastier than porridge.

 

4) Read the text and answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

Primitive man was probably more concerned with fire as a source of warmth and as a means of cooking food than as a source of light. Before he discovered less laborious ways of making fire, he had to preserve it, and whenever he went on a journey he carried a firebrand with him. His discovery that the firebrand from which the torch may well have developed could be used for illumination was probably the incidental purpose of preserving a flame.  Lamps, too probably developed by accident. Early man may have had his first conception of a lamp while watching a twig of fibre burning in the molten fat dropped from the roasting carcass. All he had to do was to fashion a vessel to contain fat and float a lighted reed in it. Such lamps, which were made of hollowed stones or sea-shells, have persisted in identical form up to quite recent times.

 

Which of the following statements can be derived from the text?

  1.  Lighting his surroundings was a major concern for the primitive man.

  2.  Primitive man used to soften his food by heating it.

  3.  Torch was discovered more by accident than by design.

  4.  Preserving fire was not a major concern for the primitive man.

  5.  Some of the primitive lamp designs survived for long through the ages.

 

 

5) Read the text and answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

There are other environmental problems connected with offshore oil, besides oil pollution, many of them are routine part of operations. In drilling an offshore well, operators customarily discard overboard their drill cuttings with some un-separated drilling mud (which is not actually mud but a combination of clay and chemicals). A typical 15,000-foot well usually produces more than 1,000 tons of drill cuttings. In addition, mineral salts, which may have distinctly harmful effects on some forms of marine life, are released from geological formations and are regularly discharged after treatment in the course of production. Localized short-term impacts have been detected as a result of these discharges. Routine discharges like these, together with chronic low-level oil leaks, present “considerable environmental risk,” the Council on Environmental Quality concluded in its report on OCS oil and gas. Digging channels for service ships and barges, building docks and other structures at the waterfront, and, to a lesser extent, laying pipeline cause another kind of environmental disruption. Instead of poisoning marine creatures, these activities tend to bury them, choke them, or cut off the light, which is essential to their whole food chain. Most importantly, dredging and filling change drainage patterns of estuaries and wetlands and can lead to erosion or saltwater intrusion. Increased salinity of the water in marshes and estuaries is usually damaging to the young fish, shellfish, and other organisms residing there. They may not be able to tolerate the higher salinity or they may be decimated by invading predators with an affinity for saltier waters.

 

According to the information given in the passage, select the statement(s) that the author may probably disagree with?

  1.  Offshore oil drilling invites serious environmental problems.

  2.  An offshore oil well may not pose as much danger to the environment once it becomes completely operational.

  3.  While some species may suffer due to higher salinity levels, the situation may be a boon to some others.

  4.  Offshore oil drilling can have disastrous impact on the marine food chain.

  5.  Pipelines laid to carry gas or oil from the offshore wells are more disastrous than the huge structures erected at the waterfront.

 

6) Read the text and answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

It is in the university that leaders of the country are trained. The university education is calculated to produce and is producing, men who will be able to play worthy part in public life. It is true that legislative and administrative capacities are developed by experience and by practical knowledge of affairs. Foundations need to be laid at a much earlier stage. It is from this university teaching that a young man should learn to examine critically the material before him, to arrive at a balanced judgment; and not to be carried away by mere catchwords. But in public affairs something more is needed than the power of criticism and intellectual judgment. It is mainly outside the classroom that the boy learns the lesson of corporate life, how to understand the views of others and to work with them, how to sacrifice cheerfully his private inclination for the common good, and how to lead others by influence rather than by authority. He learns these lessons daily by contacts in clubs and societies, in playing fields and common rooms and also not the least by the guidance of wise teachers from whom a timely word may mean so much.

 

According to the information given in the passage, select the statement(s) that the author may probably disagree with?

  1. The classroom teaching lays the true foundation stone of a student’s future public life.

  2.  Platforms for personal and group interaction are provided by the university.

  3.  Public affairs demand personal sacrifices.

  4.  Public life demands theoretical as well as practical knowledge.

  5.  True leaders sway rather than dictate

 

7) Read the text and answer the question by selecting all the correct responses. More than one response is correct.

Playing is as natural for children as breathing. They play because they are so full of animal spirits and so overcharged with muscular energy that they must expend it by playing. Running, jumping and other physical activities build their muscles and tone their motor development. It is all-instinctive. Playing is learning .Moreover, playing involves imagination, imitation and ‘make-believe’ and thus contributes to the development of the child’s mind also. In playing a child makes friends, develops the qualities of leadership and learns to function in a group. This develops his social responsibility. Moreover, playing is a rehearsal of those activities which will be useful to them in life.  For example, when girls play with dolls they practice being mothers and when boys play policeman game, they prepare themselves for active outdoor life. Playing is a therapy Psychologists believe that playing also acts as a therapy for the child; it serves as an emotional vent. It gives him/her much-needed cathartic release. Children play to make up for defeats, sufferings and everyday frustration. He may have been scolded by a teacher or bullied by a class mate. Playing is advisableIt is, therefore, necessary that parents should let the children play when it is time to play. Some parents force their children to study as it is thought to be far more useful for life than play. It is a mistake on their part to think play as a waste of time. Through the experience of play a child enriches his life and becomes not only physically strong but also emotionally.

 

Which of the following statements about playing can be supported from the text?

a) All children love to play.

 b) Playing releases pent-up feelings.

 c) Parents forbid their children from playing.

 d) Playing enables children to pay back love and affection.

 e) Playing is a preparation for the business of life.

 

Answers: Click here

 

Reading: Re-order Paragraph

 

 1) Map
a) But this map has always fascinated me, and still does, even though it now seems very primitive.
b) This is somewhat surprising given the London Underground's historic difficulty in grasping the concept of punctuality.

c) For as long as I can remember, there has been a map in the ticket hall of Piccadilly Circus tube station supposedly       showing night and day across the time zones of the world.fascinated and still does, even though it now seems very primitive.
d) This is because it chops the world up equally by longitude, without regard the reality of either political divisions or the changing seasons.

 

2) chimpanzees

a) A simple way to disprove this hypothesis (the Innateness Hypothesis) is to demonstrate that other species have the capacity to speak but for some reason simply have not developed speech.
b) A logical candidate for such a species is the chimpanzee, which shares 98.4% of the human genetic code.
c) Chimpanzees cannot speak because, unlike homo sapiens, their vocal cords are located higher in their throats and cannot be controlled as delicately as human vocal cords.
d) It does not follow from their lack of speech, however, that chimpanzees are incapable of language.

e) Perhaps they can acquire grammar like humans if they could only express it some other way.

 

 

 3) Immigration Effect
a) In the early years of the twenty-first century the impact of immigrants on the welfare state and, specifically, the capacity of the welfare state to absorb large numbers of immigrants has become a staple of discussion among policy makers and politicians.
b) It is also a recurrent theme in the press, from the highbrow pages of Prospect to the populism of the Daily Mail.
c) Inevitably, these discussions focus on present-day dilemmas.

d) But the issues themselves are not new and have historical roots that go much deeper than have been acknowledged

 

4) Foreign Aid

a) Today, the projects of organizations like the World Bank are meticulously inspected by    watchdog groups

b) Scrutiny by the news media shamed many developed countries into curbing their bad practices.

c) But beginning in the 1990s, foreign aid had begun to slowly improve.

d) Although the system is far from perfect, it is certainly more transparent than it was when foreign aid routinely helped ruthless dictators stay in power.

 

5) Aircraft Crash

a) During his tenure on the mail route, he was renowned for delivering the mail under any circumstances.
b) After a crash, he even salvaged bags of mail from his burning aircraft and immediately phoned Alexander Varney, Peoria's airport manager, to advise him to send a truck.
c) He flew the mail in a de Havilland DH-4 biplane to Springfield, Illinois, Peoria and Chicago.
d) After finishing first in his pilot training class, Lindbergh took his first job as the chief pilot of an airmail route operated by Robertson Aircraft Co. of Lambert Field in St. Louis, Missouri.

 

6) Company

a) Leave to cook for five years and you have a feast of profits.

b) Add some generous helpings of debt, a few spoonful of management incentives and trim all the fat.

c) That has been the recipe for private-equity groups during the past 200 years.

d) Take an underperforming company.

 

7) Party

 a) In fact, the caste and communal cards have been fine-tuned to an art form in the political games that are played in 

    this country.

 b) Since independence, every political party has played communal card whenever election time draws near.

 c) When each party carefully selects political candidates on the basis of religion or caste, it is encouraging and

     continuing the divide-and-rule tactics of its colonial masters.

d) This was seen when the Youth Congress(I) goons were given a free hand to terrorise Sikhs all over the country after           Indira Gandhi's assassination.

e) And no political party can absolve itself on this count; worse, political parties take on board hoodlums and gangsters       who use their clout in political circles to settle scores and extract money.

 

8) Finance 

a) The Argentines withdrew 2.3$ billion from their bank accounts.

b) Unemployment touched 20 percent.

c) The finance minister put a cap of $ 2000 a month on cash withdrawals.

d) The trade union declared a strike.

9) Government

a) A government that facilitated private business was assumed to be working against the interest of the workers and

   the public sector.
b)I think even more urgent than privatizing existing state-owned firms is to allow the entry of private firms into sectors

   earlier reserved for the state.
c) Indian thinking has traditionally been encumbered by a zero-sum view of the economy.
d) In reality, economic life is full of complementarities.

 

10) Feelings

a) Feelings are in themselves not observable and Huthwaite's researchers could not measure them directly.
b) This contrasts sharply with the amount of information given about external events such as facts, clarifications and

    general expressions of opinion.
C) The results showed that contrary to the general impressions, skilled negotiators are more likely to give information

    about internal events than are average negotiators.
d) The general impressions that skilled negotiators seem to convey is
they are people who keep their cards close to

    their chest and do not reveal their feelings.
e) Hence, they used a surrogate method- they countered the number of times that the negotiators talked about their

   feelings or motives.

 

11) 

a) Ignorance is the opposite of knowledge, i.e., want of knowledge.

b) Entrepreneurial knowledge is essentially intuitive.

c) To deal with uncertainty and ignorance economists have recognized the entrepreneur as possessing this non-

    rational form of knowledge.

d) It involves seeing and realizing a vision of future markets, products and/or other opportunities.

e) Like some ancient priest-king, the entrepreneur ‘knows’ the future and leads his people.

 

12) 

a) In terms of cargo handling efficiency, some of India's ports have lately undergone a sea change.

b) The impetus for change in cargo handling, after years of operational inefficiency has come from new private sector

 facilitators.

c) And the government agrees this is having a cascading effect on the functioning of other ports.

d) Other ports, both major and minor, have spurred into action.

 

 

Answers: Click here

 

Reading- Fill in the blanks

 

1) Since the dawn of human civilization, human beings have consistently been................  their dream faculty. In the Aryan society too, the dreams ............... the human beings. The coming of Christianity itself was a great event in the history of mankind. The crucifixion of Jesus was seen in the dreams of the chosen and ............... who had fathomless faith in Jesus, they had been informed in the dream that there would be a resurrection of Jesus and his sacrifice for the sins of humanity would not go............... .

 

misguided      mystified     blessed   interpreting   wasted   remembering

 

2) It’s no secret that battlefield trauma can leave...............  with deep emotional scars that........... their ability to function in civilian life. But new research led by Washington University in St. Louis suggests that military service, even without. has a subtle ................... effect on a man’s personality, making it potentially more difficult for veterans to get along with friends, family and co-workers................ ,


combat      soothe   lingering   amateurs     veterans      impact

 

3) Considering their reputation as man-killers, it’s hardly surprising that hackles are raised any time someone brings up the idea of.................wolves to the Scottish Highlands. Debate on this topic raging for years. ........................ would like to see the Highland environment returned to its natural state. Opponents.....................  the animals......................  for killing livestock.

 

reacquainting            activists       accuse       propensity        cite       reintroducing     proponents

 

4) Brain concussion is a brain..................which does not have any macroscopic structural damage but is caused by mechanical force. Post-traumatic amnesia was a condition to.................. brain concussion. Patients with brains concussion have always amnesia with normal ..................status. One form of ..................  left intact in patients is the ability to learn skills called procedural memory.

 

filter    dysfunction    skill    neurological     diagnose   memory

 


5) Carbon dioxide has an important function in maintaining the.....................  balance on Earth. Some of the sun’s................  is absorbed by the Earth and some is radiated back into the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide in the atmosphere....................  some of the radiation from leaving the atmosphere. Thus the heat remains in the atmosphere and carbon dioxide helps to prevent the.................  of the Earth from falling.

 

absorbs           temperature              critical               radiation            prevents                ecological 

 

6) The Natural Law, as applied to the case of human beings, requires greater........................  because of the fact that we have...............  and free will. It is our nature humans to act freely (i.e. to be provident for ourselves and others) by being inclined toward our proper acts and end. That is, we human .................. must exercise our natural reason to discover what is best for us in order to achieve the end to which their nature inclines. Furthermore, we must...................  our freedom, by choosing what reason determines to naturally suited to us, i.e. what is best for our nature. The natural inclination of humans to ..................their proper end through reason and free will is a natural law. Formally defined, the Natural Law is humans’ participation in the Eternal Law, through reason and will. Humans actively 6 participate in the eternal law of God (the governance of the world) by using reason in conformity with the Natural Law to discern what is good and evil

 

 

 

7) Your cell phone can help you call for help in a remote location, find take-out in an unfamiliar area and provide marketers with ways to track your ................. habits. But could cell phones help track diseases? A team of researchers has managed to track malaria's spread in Kenya. Malaria is one of the deadliest diseases in the world. An estimated 3.3 billion people - half of the world's population - is at risk for the disease. .................. , much of those transmissions are not necessarily due to the mosquito that carries the parasite. The mosquito cannot actually travel for a very long time or for long distances. Unfortunately for malaria transmission, humans can travel as far and as quickly as a car, train or plane can take them. And, because many carriers of the parasite do not show symptoms at all or right away, they can carry the parasite hundreds of miles from where they...................it to pass on to other people, making it difficult to control infections.

 

Many of the journeys in the country involved travel to or through the nation's capital, Nairobi, indicating a likely spike in transmission of the disease there, even in people who had become infected in other places. Other areas are vulnerable to imported cases of malaria, like the central and Lake Victoria regions. Both regions see a lot of visitors but have fewer .................. controls in place. Researchers hope that their information - and mobile technology - can help put in place new approaches for malaria control.  ......................., warning texts could be sent to travelers moving in and out of malaria hotspots, in addition to current methods like bed nets, insecticides, and medication.


  in additionstored , purchasing, daily, however, received, furthermore, eradication, own, for example

 

 

Reading: Multiple  Choice  choose single Answer

 

1) Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

 

Immediately relevant to game theory are the sex ratios in certain parasitic wasp species that have a large excess of females. In these species, fertilized eggs develop into females and unfertilized eggs into males. A female stores sperm and can determine the sex of each egg she lays by fertilizing it or leaving it unfertilized. By Fisher‘s genetic argument that the sex ratio will be favored which maximizes the number of descendants an individual will have and hence the number of gene copies transmitted, it should pay a female to produce equal numbers of sons and daughters. Hamilton, noting that the eggs develop within their host—the larva of another insect—and that the newly emerged adult wasps mate immediately and disperse, offered a remarkably cogent analysis. Since only one female usually lays eggs in a given larva, it would pay her to produce one male only, because this one male could fertilize all his sisters on emergence. Like Fisher, Hamilton looked for an evolutionarily stable strategy, but he went a step further in recognizing that he was looking for a strategy.

The author suggests that the work of Fisher and Hamilton was similar in that both scientists

 

  1.  Conducted their research at approximately the same time

  2.  Sought to manipulate the sex ratios of some of the animals they studied

  3.  sought an explanation of why certain sex ratios exist and remain stable

  4.  Studied game theory, thereby providing important groundwork for the later development of strategy theory

 

2) Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

It is believed that Cushitic-speaking people were the first ethnic group to migrate to today’s Kenya. It is believed that they moved in from northern Africa somewhere around 2000 BCE. Then came the Arab Traders who started frequenting the Kenyan coast way back in the first century CE (Common Era). The Kenyan coast served host to communities of ironworkers, subsistence farmers, hunters and fishermen who supported the economy with agriculture, fishing, metal production and trade with foreign countries.

 

Which of the following statements is not true with reference to Kenya?

 

 A. Settlers from Arab Countries constitute a significant fraction of Kenya’s population today.

 B. Cushitic speaking people moved into today’s Kenyan territory around 2000 years ago.

 C. Arab traders started paying regular visits to Kenya ever since the turn of the Common Era.

 D. The Kenyan coast has over the centuries served host to diverse communities and cultures.

 

 

3) Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

Until the 1600s, English was, for the most part, spoken only in England. However, during the course of the next two centuries, English began to spread around the globe as a result of exploration, trade, colonization, and missionary work. English gradually became the primary language of international business, banking, and diplomacy. Currently, more than 80 percent of the information stored on computer systems worldwide is in English. Two-thirds of the world’s science writing is in English, and English is the main language of technology, advertising, media, international airports, and air traffic controllers. Today there are more than 700 million English users in the world, and over half of these are non-native speakers, constituting the largest number of non-native users of any language in the world.

 

Which of the following most accurately summarizes the opinion of the author in the text?

 

A. Small enclaves of English speakers have grown in various parts of the world.

 B. Over the past 500 years, small English communities have proliferated all over the world.

 C. English has become the dominant language of international communication.

 D. English is the native language of more than half a billion people of the world.

 

4) Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

English in India is a historical legacy. English can open our door to the world as we can interact with the people globally if we have a command on English. English is the medium which can broaden our horizons of knowledge and experience. Our view point can be put forth to the foreigners and we can confidently debate our point of view. Many Indian spiritual gurus have foreign followers because with English they have expressed their ideas which have won many a foreign heart. Our culture and spirituality which earlier remained in bounds has gained an international identity.

What main point is the author trying to make?

  1.  The use of English enables India to merge with the rest of the world.

  2.  English language poses no threat to India’s regional languages.

  3.  English in its own domains has become the main language for communication.

  4.  English has played an important incremental role to India’s regional languages.

 

5) Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

West Asia witnessed major political changes after the Second World War. Jordan and Syria became independent in 1946 from Britain and France respectively. Egypt wanted to renegotiate the 1936 Anglo Egyptian Treaty with Britain. Lebanon also became fully independent when the French troops moved out in 1946. The Arab League, formed in 1945 at the behest of Britain, suffered due to lack of trust among the member countries. In November 1947 the UN General Assembly approved the partition of Palestine to resolve the Arab-Israel conflict. Although the Jewish Leadership accepted this, the Palestinian Arabs and the Arab League called it unfair and rejected it.  They wanted Palestinians to get the right to rule according to the UN Charter.

 

Which of the following pieces of information cannot be made out from the above passage?

 A. Jordan was a British colony until 1946.

 B. Many West Asian countries got independence after the Second World War.

 C. The Arab League was virtually a creation of Britain.

 D. The 1947 UN Resolution paved the way for a lasting solution to the Arab-Israeli dispute.

 

6) Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

 

Future Shock is a book written by the futurist Alvin Toffler in 1970. In the book, Toffler defines the term “future shock” as a certain psychological state of individuals and entire societies. His shortest definition for the term is a personal perception of “too much change in too short a period of time”. The book became an international bestseller, selling over 6 million copies, and has been widely translated.

Toffler argued that society is undergoing an enormous structural change, a revolution from an industrial society to a “super-industrial society”. This change overwhelms people, he believed, the accelerated rate of technological and social change leaving people disconnected and suffering from “shattering stress and disorientation” – future shocked. Toffler stated that the majority of social problems are symptoms of future shock. In his discussion of the components of such shock he popularized the term “information overload.”

 

What would be the most suitable title for the passage?

a) A shocking vision of the future.
b)  What is 
future shock"?
c) The career of the futurist Alvin Toffler.
d) A changing society.

 

7) Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

 Now, it is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer. But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form, and so on indefinitely. A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. It is rather the same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts.

 

The author would most likely agree that

a) individual writers can never have a bad influence on the English language
b) imprecise use of language is likely to make precise thought more difficult
c) the English language is ugly and inaccurate
d) all language declines for political reasons
e) failure generally leads to more failure in a downward spiral

 

 

 

 

 

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