Speaking- Real Aloud- PTE Real Exam Questions
December 2019 Updates
1)The Italian alphabet has fewer letters in comparison with the English alphabet. Italian does not use the letters J, K, W, X or Y, except in borrowed words. However young Italians are increasingly using the letter K in words that would be written with C or CH in standard Italian orthography.
2) Summerhill School was regarded with considerable suspicion by the educational establishment. Lessons were optional for pupils at the school, and the government of the school was carried out by a School Council, of which all the pupils and staff were members, with everyone having equal voting rights.
3) The College has a fascinating museum dedicated to archaeology and anthropology. It contains information about many of the studies which have been carried out by members of the College over the 500 years of its existence. There are many unique exhibits brought back from excavations and explorations in all the continents.
4)The course includes an extensive unit on climate change and requires all students to read the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate change, which was published last year. The course delves into the science behind the issue, the challenges it poses to business and government as well as a discussion on possible solutions.
5) In Japan, tea ceremony is a ritual-like formalism in which green tea you prepare and serve to multiple guests in a tea full setting. The ceremony can take as long as four hours and there are many tradition gestures that the server and the guests must perform.
6) Writers may make the mistake of making all their sentences too compact. Some have made this accusation against the prose of Gibbon. An occasional loose sentence prevents the style from becoming too formal and allows the reader to relax slightly. Loose sentences are common in easy, unforced writing, but it is a fault when there are too many of them.
7) This is what needs to happen on climate change: the world needs to put a price on carbon emissions and let the market respond. If politicians pretend this can be done without pain, it will probably result in another five to ten years of pretending to take action.
8) When countries assess their annual carbon dioxide emissions, they count up their cars and power stations, but bush fires are not included – presumably because they are deemed to be events beyond human control. In Australia, Victoria alone sees several hundred thousand hectares burn each year; in both 2004 and more recently, the figure has been over 1 million hectares.
9) In an attempt to lure new students, leading business schools - including Harvard, Stanford, the University of Chicago and Wharton - have moved away from the unofficial missions and prerequisite of four years' work experience and instead have set their sights on recent college graduates and so-called early career professionals with only a couple years of work under their belt.
10) The physical location of a restaurant in the competitive landscape of the city has long been known as a major factor in its likely success or failure. Once restaurants are established in such environments, they can do little about their location. All they can do is work to improve customer access to their premises. Restaurateurs often do this by engaging in battles with local authorities about car parking.
11) It seems that when it comes to love, men and women are designed to misconstrue misread and misunderstand one another and themselves. You discover that in fact they make good sense. Being a deluded romantic is often the best way to make a good-biologically successful-choice about a potential partner on the basis.
12) Solar energy is an excellent source of supplying power to homes and companies and by utilizing solar power you're not merely protecting the environment from becoming polluted but also you are saving the rest of the earth's natural resources. Capturing solar energy does not contribute to any pollution and does not harm the atmosphere. One of the factors why many individuals are still hesitant to make use of solar power is because it is expensive. The need of big location of space is another reason why people aren't taking into consideration solar power.
13) Environmental problems caused by hard rock mining involve water pollution by metals themselves, chemicals used in processing, acid drainage, and sediment. Metals and metal-like elements in the ore are toxic and prone to cause trouble by ending up in nearby streams and water tables as a result of mining operations.
14) You may have heard of the new fad known as ‘ecotourism’. This means tourism, which is environmentally friendly, and conscious about conserving the environment. The key is to minimize the physical, social and behavioural impacts of overseas travel. Tour groups will often work with local and indigenous communities to design respectful and memorable programs for visitors.
15) The coastal wetlands have environmental and economic importance. Wetlands provide natural wealth. They have important filtering capabilities. As the runoff water passes, they retain excess nutrients and some pollutants. They maintain water flow during dry periods. Thousands of people depend on groundwater for drinking. They act as natural sponges of floodwaters and contain soil erosion. They control floods and save the buildings from collapsing during heavy rains. The hardwood-riparian wetlands along the Mississippi River can store sixty days of floodwater.
16) Such an agreement would include recognition that the world must aim as soon as possible to hold global warming to 1.5-degree Celsius; a long-term low-carbon future; 5-year updated action plans that recognize the developing climate reality; and aid to those countries that did little to cause climate change but are most at risk from it.
17) When we recycle, used materials are converted into new products, reducing the need to consume natural resources. If used materials are not recycled, new products are made by extracting fresh, raw material from the Earth, through mining and forestry. Recycling helps conserve important raw materials and protects natural habitats for the future.
18) As far as politics go, the responses are just as varied. Mitigation is common and calls for a reduction of emissions and less reliance on fossil fuels. Coal-burning power plants are now replaced with hydraulic power plants and electrical cars are replacing some gasoline efficient cars. Many people, however, feel that this is not enough.
19) This finding is understandable in certain cases in spite of its high significance; that is because the energy efficiency of building operation just represents a single aspect of sustainability. By the same token, an energy-efficient building with poor building material choices may not be considered sustainable.
20) Humans need to use energy in order to exist. So it is unsurprising that the way people have been producing energy is largely responsible for current environmental problems. Pollution comes in many forms, but those that are most concerning, because of their impact on health, result from the combustion of fuels in power stations and cars.
21) What we found is that the plant is actually damaged by herbivores like most plants are in nature. And in response to that it secretes sugar from the wound edges where the herbivores have damaged the plant. ”Tobias Lortzing is a graduate student at Freie University Berlin and one of the study authors.
22) Environment problems caused by hard rock mining involve water pollution by metals themselves, chemicals used in processing, acid drainage, and sediment. Metals and metal-like elements in the ore are toxic and prone-to cause trouble by ending up in nearby streams and water tables as a result of mining operations
23) Kindermann says he thinks the compound could be a win-win for the planet—and the animals. "You know the methane is kind of a waste product. And this energy, instead of losing it for the animal, it can be reused for the animal in terms of performance, and at the same time we are doing something for greenhouse gas emission and climate change." The products not on the market yet - toxicology tests are ongoing.
24) Globalisation refers to a set of changes rather than a single change. Many of these changes are social, cultural and political rather than purely economic, and one of the main drivers in addition to the global marketplace is the communications revolution.
25) One of the major factors influencing future home design will be the probable change in climate, with hotter summers. colder winters, and the possibility of floods. Consequently, houses will be built with better insulation and will also need ways of keeping cool in hot weather, whether that's air conditioning or more shading of windows.
26) For centuries, Atlantis has been one of the western world’s favourite legends, a tantalizing blend of fantasy and mystery. Stories tell of a rich and glorious empire that was lost to the sea- where some hope its ruins still lie, waiting to be discovered.
27) The border itself between Mexico and United States is fraught with a mix of urban and desert terrain and spans over 1,900 miles. Both the uninhabited areas of the border and urban areas are where the most drug trafficking and illegal crossings take place. Crime is prevalent in urban cities like El Paso, Texas and San Diego, California.
28) Investigators also compared those microbes with those living in 52 other soil samples taken from all around the planet. The park had organisms that also exist in deserts, frozen tundra, forests, rainforests and prairies. Antarctica was the only area that had microbes that did not overlap with those found in Central Park. Only a small percentage of the park’s microbes were found to be already listed in databases.
29) This term the university is running a series of workshops for final year students on how to do well in interviews. These sessions will help participants prepare effectively for – and to perform at their best at during – later job interviews. The workshops tutors have an excellent record of success in helping students acquire the positions they desire.
30) Tasmania is a large and a relatively sparsely populated island off the south coast of Australia. The island is of particular interest to natural scientists, who go there to research the unique wildlife. Tasmania has, for example, 12 species of bird that are not found anywhere else in the world.
31) The Atlantic coast of the peninsula can be thought of as the cold side, and the sea on this coast tends to be clear and cold, with a variety of seaweeds growing along the rocky shoreline. On a hot day, however, this cold water can be very refreshing and is said to be less hospitable to sharks, which prefer warmer waters.
32) Unlike the United Kingdom, which has taken a relatively restrictive approach to the possession of arms, the United States has taken a more lenient approach. In the United States, three models have evolved regarding the interpretation of the meaning of the right to bear and keep arms as delineated in the Second Amendment.
33) President Lincoln issues a public declaration that an insurrection exists and calls for 75,000 militia to stop the rebellion. As a result of this call for volunteers, four additional southern states secede from the Union in the following weeks. Lincoln will respond on May 3 with an additional call for 43,000 volunteers to serve for three years, expanding the size of the Regular Army.
34) While the Republican field is packed with male candidates, so far, some of the sharpest Clinton critics have come from women. Democrats successfully campaigned on an alleged GOP perpetrated "war on women" in 2012, but faltered in 2014 when they tried the same tactic. With Hillary Clinton as the likely Democratic nominee, the fight for women voters will be a central part of the 2016 campaign.
35) Lincoln’s apparently radical change of mind about his war power to emancipate slaves was caused by the escalating scope of the war, which convinced him that any measure to weaken the Confederacy and strengthen the Union war effort was justifiable as a military necessity.
36) The southerners did not accept Lincoln as a president because of certain reasons, based on historical grounds. Southerners wished to protect their rights in the government and become more independent from the north. They considered president elections to be unfair. Moreover, they thought that their own rights will be ignored and limited. All this caused the separation of the southern states and marked the beginning of the Civil War.
37) Trump has threatened to declare China a currency manipulator, but experts say he has little legal or economic basis to take such a step. He has also threatened to impose a tariff of up to 45 percent on Chinese imports if Beijing doesn't “behave” a move that could lead to a trade war and damage the economies of both nations.
38) Clementson wanted to see if claims of question dodging actually held up, historically—not necessarily in the unique case of Trump. So Clementon analysed the transcripts of 14 presidential debates, from 1996 to 2012. Overall, he found 51 accusations of question dodging - 26 by Dems, 25 by Republicans.
39) Most countries are affected by labour migration. In many rural places, the traditional extended family has been undermined by the need for family members to migrate to towns as an economic necessity. Migration, therefore, presents a major challenge everywhere to social and economic policy.
40) The American executive, unlike the British, has no connection with the legislature, and this lack of coordination between executive and legislature is one of the distinctive features of the American federal government. The Constitution guarded against executive control by disqualifying federal officials, whether civil or military, from membership in Congress.
41) The ritual of the state opening of parliament still illustrates the basis of the British constitution. The sovereignty of the Royal Family has passed to the sovereignty of parliament, leaving the monarchy with the trappings of power, while prime ministers are still denied the kind of status that is given to American and French presidents.
42) Another method governments use to try and influence the private sector is economic planning. For a long time now, socialist and communist states have used planning as an alternative to the price mechanism, organizing production and distributing their resources according to social and strategic needs, rather than based on purely economic considerations.
43) There is a long history of rulers and governments trying to legislate on men's hair - both the length of the hair on their heads and the style of facial hair. For practical reasons, Alexander the Great insisted his soldiers be clean-shaven, but Peter the Great of Russia went further, insisting no Russians had beards.
44) Although Botswana's economic outlook remains strong, the devastation that AIDS has caused threatens to destroy the country's future. In 2001, Botswana has the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. With the help of international donors, it launched an ambitious national campaign that provided free antiviral drugs to anyone who need them, and by March 2004, Botswana's infection rate has dropped significantly.
45) Life expectancy has increased dramatically in the last century. Most people these days will live for over 70 years. This is more than double the lifespan of the average human in the seventeenth century. We can attribute our longevity to advances in medicine and lifestyle. While everyone agrees that living longer is wonderful, overpopulation is becoming a serious environmental concern.
46) Since Plato, philosophers have described the decision-making process as either rational or emotional: we carefully deliberate or we 'blink' and go with our gut. But as scientists break open the mind's black box with the latest tools of neuroscience, they're discovering that this is not how the mind works. Our best decisions area finely tuned blend of both feeling and reason—and the precise mix depends on the situation.
47) The situation is similar to a pregnant woman that has twin babies in her belly. Avi Loeb of the Harvard – Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. He’s proposing the idea in a paper that’s been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.
48) Mental illness is a health problem that significantly affects how a person feels, thinks, behaves, and interacts with other people. People who experience mental illnesses and their family and friends suffer a great deal due to these illnesses. According to the World Health Organisation, depression will be one of the biggest health problems worldwide by the year 2020.
49) Globalization has affected what we eat in ways we are only beginning to understand. Modern food production no longer related to our biological needs but is in direct conflict with them. The relationship between diet and our fertility, our cancer, heart diseases and mental illness is becoming clear. Yet much of our food is nutritionally bankrupt.
50) This study tracked about 1,000 adults in the United States, and they ranged in age from 34 to 93, and they started the study by asking, 'How much stress have you experienced in the last year?' They also asked, 'How much time have you spent helping out friends, neighbours, and people in your community?' And then they used public records for the next five years to find out who died.
51) In the fast-changing world of modern healthcare, the job of a doctor is more and more like the job of a chief executive. The people who run hospitals and physicians' practices don't just need to know medicine. They must also be able to balance budgets, motivate a large and diverse staff and make difficult marketing and legal decisions.
52) The brain is divided into two hemispheres, called the left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere provided a different set of functions, behaviours, and controls. The right hemisphere is often called the creative side of the brain, while the left hemisphere is the logical or analytic side of brain. The right hemisphere controlled the left parts of the body, and the left hemisphere controlled the right side.
53) A smoking ban is a public policy that includes criminal laws and health regulations that prohibit smoking in certain public places and workspaces. There are varying definitions of smoking employed in this legislation. The strictest definitions define smoking as being the inhalation of any tobacco substance while the loosest define smoking as possessing any lit tobacco product.
54) Another administration option is to bake marijuana at a relatively low temperature to kill any dangerous microorganisms and then allow that patient to eat it or drink it. Both of these methods of administration make smoking the drug unnecessary. However, criticism of medical marijuana has also been raised because as a natural plant, it cannot be patented and marketed by pharmaceutical companies and is unlikely to win widespread medical acceptance.
55) The second group that is particularly vulnerable are night shift workers...and the third group that is particularly vulnerable are people with sleep disorders, particularly sleep apnoea. One out of three men and one out of six women have sleep apnoea. And yet, 85 percent are undiagnosed and untreated. And it more than doubles the risk of crashes.
56) Since its inception, the UN system has been working to ensure adequate food for all through sustainable agriculture. The majority of the worlds’ poorest people live in rural areas of developing countries. They depend on agriculture and related activities for their livelihoods. This makes them particularly vulnerable to man-made and natural influences that reduce agricultural production.
57) The curriculum enhances the general management program with health-related courses, Dr. Schulman says. Required courses include healthcare in the 21st century and the economics and strategy of health-sector management. Students may also take electives such as medical device commercialization, healthcare marketing, and the economics and management of the pharmaceutical industry.
58) Northcote Parkinson, a British writer, formulated Parkinson's rule: "Work expands to fill the time allotted to it; or, conversely, the amount of work completed is in inverse proportion to the number of people employed." Simply said: If you have an hour to do a 5-minute job, it will take an hour to do it. A large number of people accomplish less work than a smaller number of people.
59) Moods may also have an effect on how information is processed, by influencing the extent to which judges rely on pre-existing, internal information, or focus on new, external information. Positive moods promote more holistic and top-down processing style, while negative moods recruit more stimulus-driven and bottom-up processing.
60) The primary application we’re targeting at first is to give people a decision aid during rehabilitation, following an acute knee injury, to help them understand when they can perform particular activities, and when they can move to different intensities of particular activities. A useful thing to take crack at.
61) If you have a chronic disease such as heart disease, diabetes, asthma, or back or joint pain, exercise can have important health benefits. However, it is important to talk to your doctor before starting an exercise routine. He or she might have advice on what exercises are safe and any precautions you might need to take while exercising.
62) When a virus invades your cells, it kicks your immune machinery into motion. The first responders are signaling proteins, called interferon. And they trigger downstream immune responses. So you can kind of think of them as the hormones of the immune system. They’re triggered and then they stimulate a bunch of other immune responses that are more specific to that pathogen. Michelle Baker, a comparative immunologist at the Australian Animal Health Laboratory.
63) Cheerful sunny yellow is an attention-getter. While it is considered an optimistic color, people lose their tempers more often in yellow rooms, and babies will cry more. It is the most difficult color for the eye to take in, so it can be overpowering if overused. Yellow enhances concentration, hence it is used for legal pads. It also speeds metabolism.
64) Being physically active benefits people's health significantly, including reducing the risk of some chronic conditions, helping to control weight, and improving mental health. In recent decades, there has been a decline in physical activity because more people work in offices rather than in manual jobs.
65) It seems that language appeared from nowhere since no other species has anything resembling human language. However, other animals do possess basic systems for perceiving and producing sounds that enable them to communicate. These systems may have been in place before the appearance of language.
66) In the past wars have led to inflation and higher commodity prices. Fighting disrupts trade and prevents raw materials from being shipped from one country to another. In second-world-war Britain, a banana was the height of luxury.
67) For the purposes of argument, culture is divided into material and non-material, and the speaker's aim is to show how they both affect each other. Material developments in tools and technology can affect non- material culture, our customs and beliefs, and the other way around. Genetics is used as an example as it has changed the way we think about life, but also our beliefs have affected its rate of development.
68) Augustus was given the powers of an absolute monarch, but he presented himself as the preserver of republican traditions. He treated the Senate, or state council, with great respect, and was made Consul year after year. He successfully reduced the political power of the army by retiring many soldiers, but giving them land or money to keep their loyalty.
69) A young man from a small provincial town -- a man without independent wealth, without powerful family connections and without a university education -- moves to London in the late 1580‘s and, in a remarkably short time, becomes the greatest playwright of all time. How was this achievement of magnitude made? How does Shakespeare become Shakespeare?
70) The climate for doing business improved in Egypt more than in any other country last year, according to a global study that revealed a wave of company-oriented reforms across the Middle East. The World Bank rankings, which look at business regulations, also showed that the pace of business reforms in Eastern Europe was overtaking East Asia.
71) "Thompson recognized and exploited all the ingredients of a successful amusement ride," writes Judith A. Adams in The American Amusement Park Industry. "His coasters combined an appearance of danger with actual safety, thrilled riders with exhilarating speed, and allowed the public to intimately experience the Industrial Revolution’s new technologies of gears, steel, and dazzling electric lights."
72) History rubs shoulders and often overlaps with many other areas of research, from myths and epics to the social sciences, including economics, politics, biograph, demography, and much else besides. Some histories are almost pure narratives, while others go in for detailed, tightly focused analyses of, for example, the parish records of a Cornish village in the 16th century.
73) Before European explorers had reached Australia, it was believed that all swans were white. Dutch mariner, Antonie Caen, was the first to be amazed at the sight of Australia’s Black swans on the Shark Bay in 1636. Explorer Willem de Vlamingh captured two of these creatures on Australia’s Swan River and returned with them to Europe to prove their existence. From that point on, black swans and Australia have been closely linked.
74) As a historian, if you really want to understand the sensibilities of those who lived in the past, you must be like a novelist and get into the skins of your characters and think and feel as they do. You are asked to imagine what it's like to be a peasant in medieval times, asking the sort of questions a peasant might ask. What the writer is saying is that a historian needs imaginative sympathy with ordinary people in the past.
75) Not a lot is known about how the transportation of goods by water first began. Large cargo boats were being used in some parts of the world up to five thousand years ago. However, sea trade became more widespread when large sailing boats travelled between ports, carrying spices, perfumes and objects made by hand.
76) The speaker is a marine biologist who became interested in the Strandlopers, an ancient people who lived on the coastline, because of their connection to the sea. Their way of life intrigued him. As a child he had spent a lot of time by the sea, exploring and collecting things – so he began to study them, and discovered some interesting information about their way of life, how they hunted, what tools they used, and so on.
77) Lincoln's apparently radical change of mind about his war power to emancipate slaves was caused by the escalating scope of war, which convinced him that any measure to weaken the Confederacy and strengthen the Union war effort was justifiable as a military necessity.
78) In 1861, Matthew Brady, a well- known portrait photographer, approached President Lincoln requesting permission to move freely about the country photographing the Civil War. Lincoln granted him permission to travel anywhere with the Union armies, and his record of this conflict brought home to millions the horrors of war.
79) Britain, then, was slower to create and develop a police force than the rest of Europe: France had one long before - indeed, the word police is taken from the French. This fact was not unimportant, as the very idea of a police force was seen as foreign - that is, French - and particularly undesirable, and was generally regarded as a form of oppression.
80) To understand the past you have to be able, as far as possible, to think as the people in the period you are studying thought. The example of what it must have been like to be a peasant in the middle ages issued. However, sensibilities change over time and we can't completely throw off the mentality of the present. Therefore, every age will have a slightly different perspective on the same period of the past, no matter what the facts are.
81) We’ve outfitted it with the space lab built by our European partners and used it before the era of the space station to do scientific research. We used it as part of our partnership with the Russians, which is still continuing, first as part of the Mir space station, where we actually prolonged the useful life of Mir by several years through logistical supply visits with the shuttle. And now, of course, we’re using it to build the new international space station, which is a huge international partnership
81)(a) The speaker reminisces about his views of the English Revolution when he was a student and how it seemed quite clear which side he was on - the aristocrats', not the puritans'. Later he realised there was more to it than that and there were several ways of interpreting the Revolution: as a struggle between the king and parliament, as a class war or as an unpredictable situation without clear sides.
82) By this time, however, paleontological momentum had moved to England. In 1812, at Lyme Regis on the Dorset coast, an extraordinary child named Mary Anning - aged 11, 12 or 13, depending on whose account you read - found a strange fossilized sea monster, 17 feet long and now known as the ichthyosaurus, embedded in the steep and dangerous cliffs along the English Channel.
83) The main difference on this occasion was that the colonists were not just fighting against a king who was determined to use his own prerogative; they were also fighting against a parliament which believed that it and it alone should raise taxes and control revenues, rights which had been won in the previous century.
84) The main difference on this occasion was that the colonists were not just fighting against a king who was determined to use his own prerogative; they were also fighting against a parliament which believed that it and it alone should raise taxes and control revenues, rights which had been won in the previous century.
85) In the past, wars have led to inflation and higher commodity prices. Fighting disrupts trade and prevents raw materials from being shipped from one country to another. In second-world-war Britain, a banana was the height of luxury.
86) In the summer of 2006, Europe experienced drought on an unprecedented scale. On the Rhine, Europe ‘s busiest waterway, low waters forced ships to carry less cargo and make up for lost revenue with surcharges of up to 50%. In Italy, the Agricultural Confederation announced that the grape harvest was the lowest in two decades.
87) Before the time of Alexander the Great, the only eastern people who could be compared with the Greeks in the fields of science and philosophy were from the Indian sub-continent. However, because so little is known about Indian chronology, it is difficult to tell how much of their science was original and how much was the result of Greek influence.
88) Ann the second quarter of the 19th century, a rapidly growing middle class created a great demand for furniture production. Yet at this stage, while machines were used for certain jobs, such as carved decoration, there was no real mass production. The extra demand was met by numerous woodworkers. Mass production came later and the quality of domestic furniture declined.
89) Line engraving on metal, which, to a great extent, was a development of the goldsmith 's craft of ornamenting armour and precious metals, did not emerge as a print-making technique until well into the 151h century. Copper, the metal mainly used for engraving, was expensive, and engraving itself was laborious and took a long time.
90) For the first two or three years after the Second World War, a new title would often sell out within a few months of publication. However, unless public demand for the book was unusually high, they were rarely able to reprint it. With paper stocks strictly rationed, they could not afford to use up precious paper or tie up their limited capital with a reprint.
91) Historically, the low level of political autonomy of the cities in China is partly a result of the early development of the state bureaucracy. The bureaucrats played a major role in the growth of urbanization, but were also able to control its subsequent development and they never completely gave up this control.
92) Early in the 19th century, Wordsworth opposed the coming of the steam train to the Lake District, saying it would destroy its natural character. Meanwhile, Blake denounced the "dark satanic mills" of the Industrial Revolution. The conservation of the natural environment, however, did not become a major theme in politics until quite recently.
93) In the distribution of wealth, America is more unequal than most European countries. The richest tenth of the population earns nearly six times more than the poorest tenth. In Germany and France, the ratio is just over three to one. The United States also has the largest proportion of its people in long-term poverty.
94) Chaucer was probably the first English writer to see the English nation as a unity. This is the reason for his great appeal to his contemporaries. A long war with France had produced a wave of patriotism, with people no longer seeing each other as Saxon or Norman but as English.
95) The grid-based infrastructure enables large-scale scientific applications to be run on distributed resources and coupled in innovative ways. However, in practice, grid resources are not very easy to use for the end-users who have to learn how to generate security credentials. There is an imminent need to provide transparent access to these resources so that the end-users are shielded from the complicated details.
96) IT may well change the way you live, yet again. Welcome to the world mobile commerce, where your handheld device, it a mobile phone, a personal digital assistant (PDA) or any other wireless application will soon be used for commercial transactions. Skeptical? Consider these facts in Japan, mobile phones are used for location based services where the mobile service providers tie up with a host of other players such as restaurants, car rental companies etc. When the mobile user enters that zone, messages from all these players are flashed on the mobile device. Location based services are proved in several other countries as well.
97) Electronic discourse is one form of interactive electronic communication. In this study, we reserve the term for the two-directional texts in which one person using a keyboard writes language that appears on the sender’s monitor and is transmitted to the monitor of a recipient, who responds by keyboard.
98) As we progress into the 21st century, communications are becoming faster and faster. Think of millions of different media images you are bombarded with every day. It is as important now to be able to read and make sense of those images, as it has been to be able to read ordinary text.
99) The Office of Personnel Management was the target of the attack, but data from nearly every government agency was stolen. U.S. investigators say they believe Chinese hackers were behind the breach.
100) The quest for a user-friendly copyright regime began a decade ago when the Hong Kong government launched a public consultation on “Copyright Protection in the Digital Environment” in December2006. Although this consultation initially sought to address internet-related challenges, such as those caused by peer-to-peer file-sharing technology, the reform effort quickly evolved into a more comprehensive digital upgrade of the Hong Kong copyright regime.
101) Major breeding areas, and breeding islands, are shown as dark green areas or darts. Open darts are shown no-breeding records on
islands, and are also used for offshore sightings, that is from ships or boats. Other areas where species are not meant to be seen are plain
pale green, with pale green hatching where records are usually sparse.
102) The elephant is the largest living land mammal. During evolution, its skeleton has greatly altered from the usual mammal, design for
two main reasons. One is to cope with the great weight of huge grinding cheek teeth and elongated tusk teeth, making the skull
particularly massive. The other is to support the enormous bulk of such a huge body.
103) Once most animals reach adulthood, they stop growing. In contrast, even plants that are thousands of years old continue to grow
new needles, add new wood, and produce cones and new flowers, almost as if parts of their bodies remained “forever young”.
104) Botanic gardens are scientific and cultural institutions established to collect, study, exchange and display plants for research and for
the education and enjoyment of the public. There are major botanic gardens in each capital city. Zoological parks and aquariums are
primarily engaged in the breeding, preservation and display of native and exotic fauna in captivity.
105) Charles Darwin published his paper “On the Origin of Species” in 1859. It is one of the most well-known pieces of scientific
literature in human history. In the paper, Darwin proposes the theory of natural selection. He states that for any generation of any species,
there will always be a struggle for survival. Individuals who are better suited to the environment are “fitter”, and therefore have a much
higher chance of surviving and reproducing. This means that later generations are likely to inherit these stronger genetic traits.
106) Such cross-protection is usually seen between two animals. But Gore studies the same sort of mutualism in microbes. He and his
team demonstrated the first experimental example of that cross-protective relationship in drug-resistant microbes, using two strains of
antibiotic-resistant E. coli bacteria: one resistant to ampicillin, the other to chloramphenicol.
107) It’s not that human activities didn’t impact wildlife at all of course. Heavily hunted species, like white-tailed deer, grey squirrels, and
raccoons, were photographed somewhat less often in hunted areas. Coyotes showed up more often in hunted areas. While most species
didn’t avoid hiking trails, the predators actually preferred them.
108) Shrimp farmers used to hold animals in nursery ponds for 30 to 60 days; now they try to move them into grow-out ponds in less
than 30 days. This reduces stress on the animals and dramatically increases survivals in the grow-out ponds. Many farms that abandoned
nursery ponds have gone back to them, and the results have been surprisingly positive. They're using the old, uncovered, earthen,
109) Usually, age is determined by physical characteristics, such as teeth or bones. Great—if you have a body. Researchers have tried
unsuccessfully to use blood. But in this study, the scientists used immune cells called T-cells. T-cells recognize invaders through
receptors that match molecules on bacteria, viruses, even tumours. The cellular activity that produces these receptors also produces a
type of circular DNA molecule as a by-product.
110) DeLone and McLean's model has been criticized by some authors. Indeed, this model is specific to contexts of voluntary use of
information technology. The usage variable remains a success variable of information systems if the user himself decides to adopt or
reject the technology. However, for mandatory uses, such as for ERP systems, the use of the technology is obvious. The success of
information systems cannot, therefore, be measured by usage.
111) The researchers think that long-distance fliers such as the American golden-plover and the white-rumped sandpiper picked up the
spores while lining their nests. Then when the birds arrive in new places they molt, leaving behind the feathers and their precious cargo-to
start growing again at the other end of the world.
112) The initial thud comes from when those dorsal bursae collide. And the reverberation results from the vibrations that linger when the
tissues pull apart. But Thode the younger says the bursae have to be somewhat sticky for the clapping together and snapping apart to
produce a noise with the correct loudness and pitch. That stickiness comes courtesy of the mucus.
113) "The caterpillars that feed on trees are trying to match the hatching of their eggs to the timing of budburst. The caterpillars want to
feed on the juiciest and least chemically protected leaves. And it's not just the caterpillars, of course, that are important. But the knock-
on effect is on nesting birds, which are also trying to hatch their chicks at the same time that there's the maximum number of
114) While killing gorillas is already illegal in the country, declaring the subspecies as critically endangered would probably bring more
funding and support for saving it. Protecting the entirety of the gorilla’s7,700-square-mile territory would no doubt prove impossible, but
Dr. Plumptre and his colleagues are talking with the government and community leaders about establishing two new protected areas that
would encompass 60 percent of the remaining gorillas’ habitat.
115) Most succulent plants are found in regions where there is little rainfall, dry air, plenty of sunshine, porous soils and high
temperatures during part of the year. These conditions have caused changes in plant structures, which have resulted in greatly increased
thickness of stems, leaves and sometimes roots, enabling them to store moisture from the infrequent rains.
116) Modern buildings have to achieve certain performance requirements, at least to satisfy those of building codes, to provide a safe,
healthy, and comfortable environment. However, these conditioned environments demand resources in energy and materials, which are
both limited in supply, to build and operate.
117) Free trade is an economic policy under which the government does not interfere with trade. No tariffs are applied to imports or
exports, and people are allowed to trade goods and services as they please. Supply and demand dictates the prices for which goods and
services sell and are the only factors that determine how resources are allocated in society.
118) As to the Industrial Revolution, one cannot dispute today the fact that it has succeeded in inaugurating in a number of countries a
level of mass prosperity which was undreamt of in the days preceding the Industrial Revolution. But, on the immediate impact of
Industrial Revolution, there were substantial divergences among writers.
119) At the beginning of each fiscal year, funds are allocated to each State account in accordance with the University’s financial plan.
Funds are allocated to each account by the object of expenditure. Account managers are responsible for ensuring that adequate funds are
available in the appropriate object before initiating transactions to use the funds.
120) For any marketing course that requires the development of a marketing plan, such as Marketing Management, Marketing Strategy
and Principles of Marketing. This is the only planning handbook that guides students through a step by step creation of a customized
marketing plan while offering commercial software to aid in the process.
121) Weakness in electronics, auto and gas station sales dragged down overall retail sales last month, but excluding those three
categories, retailers enjoyed healthy increases across the board, according to government figures released Wednesday. Moreover,
December sales numbers were also advised higher.
122) A marketing plan is a comprehensive document or blueprint that outlines a business advertising and marketing efforts for the coming
year. It describes business activities involved in accomplished specific marketing objectives within a set time frame. A marketing plan
also includes a description of the current marketing position of a business.
123) Globalization refers to a set of changes rather than a single change. Many of these changes are social, cultural and political rather
than purely economic, and one of the main drivers in addition to the global marketplace is the communications revolution.
124) The history of life on Earth is filled with mystery, life-and-death struggles, and bizarre and animals as amazing as any mythological
creature. Studying life’s history is one of the most fascinating and challenging parts of biology and researchers go about it in several
125) Tesla's theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current electric power systems. Thomas Edison promised him
almost one million dollars in today's money to undertake motor and generator improvement. However, when Tesla ethical Serbs asked
about the money, Edison reportedly reply "Tesla, you don't understand our American humour." The pair becomes arch rivals.
126) For diplomacy, the starting point must be that globalization requires bridges and removes barriers. A policy of containment is a
difficult strategy in the age of the fibre-optic cable, the jumbo jet and the satellite dish. There will always be the exception, such as the
murderous regime in Iraq where the only safe strategy is to keep it in the isolation ward until it accepts the norms of international
behaviour or the military dictatorship in Burma which has persistently failed to respond to dialogue. It takes two to critically engage.
127) Hundreds of millions of people buy fast food every day without giving it much thought, unaware of the subtle and not so subtle
ramifications of their purchases. They just grab their tray off the counter, find a table, take a seat, unwrap the paper, and dig in. The
whole experience is transitory and soon forgotten.
128) A unique characteristic of online shopping environments is that they allow vendors to create retail interfaces with highly interactive
features. One desirable form of interactivity from a consumer perspective is the implementation of sophisticated tools to assist shoppers
in their purchase decisions by customizing the electronic shopping environment to their individual preferences.
129) It isn’t rare for private equity houses to hire grads fresh out of business schools, but 9 times out of 10, the students who nab these
jobs are the ones who had private equity experience before even starting their MBA program.
130) If bonus or incentive pay schemes work so well for chief executive and bankers, why does everyone not get them? After all, many
jobs involve making important decisions or taking risks. Is there anything about the corporate decision and financial risks that makes these
categories of work special in terms of how they need to be incentivized and rewarded?
131) Many people believe that employers discriminate against older people because youths have more energy and creativity. This is not
true. The main reason for hiring younger workers is payroll. In most countries, your salary is dependent on how many years of work
experience you have. It is far more cost-efficient to hire postgraduates, fresh out of university, than senior staff with over twenty years of
132) In 2005, donor countries agreed on an accord to harmonize their practices. Since then, aid officials have complained that too little
has changed on the ground. Conferences of donors in developing countries still tend to be dominated by a small group of north
European governments, with the US often absent.
133) Analysts were impressed by the improvement in margins reported across all regions, apart from the United Kingdom, and said that
this reflected a clear effort to improve profitability across the business. Although the turnaround is still in its early stages and the
valuation looks full, given the challenge of turning around such a large and complex business, this is certainly an impressive start.
134) Trade unions originated in Europe during the industrial revolution. Because of the machinery that had become commonplace, skilled
labour became less in demand so employers had nearly all of the bargaining power. Employers mistreated the workers and paid them too
little for the work they did. Trade unions were organised that would help in the improvement of working conditions.
135) A Hazard Assessment should be performed for work involving distillations of organic liquids and should thoroughly address issues
relating to residual water and possible decomposition of the solvent in question, as well as the physical placement of the distillation
apparatus and heating equipment to be employed.
136) The next wave of leaders in industrial manufacturing will build an ecosystem that capitalizes on the promise of analytics and
connectivity to maximize efficiency for themselves and their customers. They will map out their strategies and prioritize measures that
will bring the most value to their business, starting now with pilot projects, and building greater strengths in data analytics with cross-
functional teams of experts.
137) Companies will want to be known not just for the financial results they generate, but equally, for the imprint they leave on society as
a whole. First, ensuring that their products contribute positively. Second, operating in a way that approaches a "net-neutral" impact to
the natural environment. And third, cherishing their people.
138) Tourism is a challenging sector on which divides statistics since businesses serving tourists, also service local people. Therefore, it
is not s straightforward to estimate how much business sectors' revenues and how many jobs are due to tourist expenditures.
139) The Ford Company provides plenty of opportunities for its employees. It guarantees not only comfortable and appropriate working
conditions, but also many other advantages. Therefore, becoming a part of the Ford Motor Company is always profitable and beneficial.
Moreover, it is important to mention that Ford Motors provides its employees with effective and useful services and takes care of their
140) The free market is extremely competitive and companies are constantly trying to gain an edge over their rivals. Merchandising and
brand image plays a major role in attracting customers, but they often lead to over-packaging. This is a serious problem since most
packaging these days are made of plastics which are not biodegradable. Some people blame the manufacturers for their blatant
disregard, while others point the finger at consumers.
141) Currently, integration is increasingly needed in the business environment. This need emerges from the efficiency and synergy
requirements necessary in a complex and turbulent environment. In other words, integration is needed to facilitate coordination, which is
again related to the building of competitive advantage.
142) Market research is a vital part of the planning of any business. However experienced you or your staff may be in a particular field, if
you are thinking of introducing a service to a new area. It is important to find out what the local population thinks about it first.
143) A university is not a business. More precisely, a not-for-profit college or university is significantly different than a for-profit
business. A university has no owners; it is a public trust. Without owners, it has no one to pay dividends to and no one for whom it must
maximize its profits. A business has a single overriding goal: the maximization of return for the owners. A university has a multiplicity of
goals: to foster learning, to create knowledge, and to serve its community.
144) Tesla came over from Graz and went to work for Thomas Edison. Nonetheless, Edison offered him a job, promising Tesla fifty
thousand dollars if Tesla could redesign Edison’s breakdown-prone DC generator designs. The new generator designs were a vast
improvement over Edison’s originals. Upon completing the job Tesla went to Edison to collect the $50,000 promised for the task. Tesla,
Edison replied you don’t understand our American humour. And Tesla was never paid.
145) Global Management is a programme specially designed to equip students with the knowledge and skills required to become an
effective leader in diverse business contexts and varied intercultural settings. The programme acknowledges that contemporary markets
are increasingly complex in terms of culture and demand, that information and communication are crucial for success, and that social
responsibility for sustainability and corporate entrepreneurship are crucial.
146) Food is one of the most important things you'll ever buy. And yet most people never bother to think about their food and where it
comes from. People spend a lot more time worrying about what kind of blue jeans to wear, what kind of video games to play, and what
kind of computers to buy.
147) In this landmark account, first published over twenty years ago, the author argues that the ignorance and lethargy of the poor are
direct results of the whole situation of economic, social and political domination. By being kept in a situation in which critical awareness
and response are practically impossible, the disadvantaged are kept ‘submerged’.
148) …today’s technological market is dominated by two contrasting business models: the generative and the non-generative models the
PCs. Window and Macs of this world – allow third parties to build upon and share through them. The non-generative model is more
restricted; appliances might work well, but the only entity that can change the way they operate is the vendor.
149) Clearly, times are changing and while many people are saving for their retirement, many more still need to do so. Most countries
have a range of pension schemes that are designed to provide individuals with an income once they stop working. People need to take
advantage of these if they are to have sufficient money throughout their retirement years.
150) Statistics reflect vital information about the economy, the well-being of the population, and the environment. Society relies on statistics being visible, accessible and robust, and on statistically literate people making the best use of the information to determine
future action. Statistical literacy, then, is the ability to accurately understand, interpret and evaluate the data that inform these issues.
151) The principle of cooperation is one of the things that sets conversation apart from similar activities such as lectures, debates, arguments and meetings. Other qualities which help to define conversation include the equal distribution of speaker rights; mutual respect among speakers; spontaneity and informality; and a non-businesslike environment.
152) Most peasants remained self-sufficient and sceptical about money - and with good reason: the triumph of capitalism probably made them worse off. They now had to deal with a centralized imperial state that was collecting tax more efficiently, giving more power to landlords, and slowly reducing customary peasant rights to land and produce.
153) It is important to note that saving is not the same as an investment. Saving is about cash, while investment is about a real product. The difference is important because money, being liquid, can leak out of the economic system - which it does when someone who is putting aside unspent income keeps it under the mattress.
154) The Japanese tea ceremony is a ritual tour influenced by Buddhism in which green tea is prepared and served to a small group of guests in a peaceful setting. The ceremony can take as long as four hours and there are many traditional gestures that both the server and the guest must perform.
155) In comparing material with non-material culture - the first being the objects and technologies we create, and the second our customs, beliefs and attitudes - the speaker gives greater emphasis to the material culture. He gives the example of the development of genetic science and the benefits it has brought to mankind, despite a fair amount of opposition.
156) The elaborate and refined Japanese tea ceremony is meant to demonstrate respect through grace and good etiquette as demonstrated here by Genshitsu Sen, 15th Grand Master of the Urasenke Tea School.
157) Legal writing is usually less discursive than writing in other humanities subjects, and precision is more important than variety. Sentence structures should not be too complex; it is usually unnecessary to make extensive use of adjectives or adverbs, and consistency of terms is often required.
158) Public demand for education has remained strong, reflecting the importance of education as a means of social progress. Aware of the added value of education to the world of work, the government continues to innovate and update the education system in order to produce a qualified and competent workforce.
159) In classes, your teachers will talk about topics that you are studying. The information that they provide will be important to know when you take tests. You must be able to take good written notes from what your teacher says.
160) Australians do speak English; however, for some tourists and travellers, it can be difficult to understand the slang. Also, the links between Australian and America English were seen to be tenuous. At least some colloquialisms in Australian English do not exist in other types of English
161) For the executive students on the march, the worth-life balance issue would have already seemed very real. While it is tough enough balancing professional life with family and friendships, having to study at the same time puts executive MBA students under event more pressure than their full-time counterparts.
162) Exhilarating, exhausting and intense. There are just some of the words used to describe doing an MBA. Everyone’s experience of doing an MBA is, of course, different through denying that it’s hard and a demanding work whichever course you do. MBA is one of the fastest-growing areas of studying in the UK so that must be a sustainable benefit against form in one pain.
163) Pick up any work of non-fiction. Without opening a book’s cover, you already know a lot what’s inside. You can reasonably expect to find a title page, table of contents, numbered pages, a body of text divided in chapters, and an index.
164) This is a new, accessible and engaging textbook written by academics who also work as consultants with organizations undergoing change. It offers a unique combination of rigorous theoretical exploration together with practical insights from working with those who are actually responsible for managing change.
165) A scientist's evidence is thought to be reliable because it will have been tested and verified at every stage. This is not, of course, infallible as scientists are subject to human error as much as the rest of us.
166) This book is no ordinary book, and should not be read through from beginning to end. It contains many different adventures, and the path you take will depend on the choices you make along the way. The success or failure of your mission will hinge on the decisions you make, so think carefully before choosing.
167) The one-year programme of the master in global management is designed only for those who have the graduate degree in the thesis, increasing temporary skill of new managers in an international capacity, something that recruiters are looking for more and more.
168) Competence in mathematics was another trouble spot. More than half said their real task, school's graduates are deficient in mathematics. More than 10 percent of respondents and said college's graduates are deficient in the subject, while 70 percent said they are adequate.
169) Certain types of the methodology are more suitable for some research projects than others. For example, the use of questionnaires and surveys is more suitable for quantitative research whereas interviews and focus groups are more often used for qualitative research purposes.
170) Written examinations are a fact of life for most high school and university students. However, recent studies have shown that this traditional form of assessment may not be an accurate indicator of academic performance. Tests have shown that many students experience anxiety during exam weeks, which leads to poorer results. As a result, some learning institutions are replacing exams with alternative assessments such as group work and oral presentations
171) The co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass is one of nature's underappreciated wonders; it also happens to be the key to understanding just about everything about modern meat. For the grasses, which have evolved to withstand the grazing of ruminants, the cow maintains and expands their habitat by preventing trees and shrubs from gaining a foothold and hogging the sunlight; the animal also spreads grass seed, plants it with his hooves, and then fertilizes it with his manure.
172) The student’s reading in his own subject slows down, and his comprehension becomes less secure. He expresses himself slowly and often fails to convey his ideas exactly. He is disappointed to find that under pressure he makes a lot of unnecessary mistakes in areas where he knows the correct language forms. His social relations are difficult as he cannot find the right phrase quickly enough to keep a conversation going, so his language often betrays him into dullness, coldness, or worst of all, rudeness. Instead of the students being in control of the language, the language seems now to be in control of the students.
173) Researchers gathered 160 uncaffeinated adults, people who consumed less than 500 milligrams of caffeine a week. These decaf subjects looked at pictures of various objects, then took either a placebo or a pill containing 200 milligrams of caffeine. That’s roughly the amount you’d get from two cups of coffee.
174) Perhaps the most memorable benefit of the program has been the opportunity to me in small groups, something that is difficult to arrange such a desperate organization. Many officers would have to work together for thirty years but would not know other’s strength and weakness.
175) Business school admissions officers said the new drive to attract younger students was in part the result of a realization that they had inadvertently limited their applicant pool by requiring several years' work experience. Talented students who might otherwise have gone to business school instead opted for a law or policy degree because they were intimidated by the expectation of work experience.
176) The department determines whether or not the candidate has passed the examination. In cases where an appearance for the final public oral examination would constitute a substantial financial hardship for the candidate, the director of graduate studies may recommend to the dean of the Graduate School that the examination be waived.
177) The training of an actor is an intensive process which requires curiosity, courage and commitment. You will learn how to prepare for rehearsal, how to rehearse and how to use independent and proactive processes that inform you to do the best work possible for both stage and screen.
178) In the past, Naming English as a separate subject seemed relatively easy. The textbook selected and graded items of language which were put into content and then practiced intensively. New items were carefully controlled so that the student could cope quite easily. Now that English is used as a medium of instruction.
179) Reiss took a stab at settling the argument with a meta-analysis—a study of studies—on whether people can really perceive better-than-CD quality sound. He analysed data from 18 studies, including more than 400 participants and nearly 13,000 listening tests. Overall, listeners picked out the better-than-CD-quality track 52.3 percent of the time. Statistically significant, if not all that impressive.
180) The numbers on US student debt, after all, are truly staggering. The average 2015 US university graduate who took out loans to help pay for tuition enters the workforce with $35,000 in student debt. In the US, total student debt exceeds $1.15 trillion - dwarfing, for instance, the nation's credit card debt.
181) Roman writers and orators began to expand their imaginative and intellectual horizons and refine the Latin language through the study of Greek literature. Early Roman literature had two kinds; the recording and examination of public life and behaviour through life stories of famous men, and the particularly Roman art of satirical comedy and drama.
182) A university is a lot more than just classes and exams, university is a concept that offers you a host of possibilities to develop both academically and personally. Find out about the different projects, clubs and societies that are in your university. You will definitely find something you are interested in.
183) The problem begins with the alphabet itself. Building a spelling system for English using letters that come from Latin – despite the two languages not sharing exactly the same set of sounds – is like building a playroom using an IKEA office set.
184) Three professors from Hamburg University's medical faculty travelled last month to Ingeborg's sitting room in East Berlin to test her on the work she carried out in pre-war Germany.
185) Studying abroad is a very popular option for students who come from a wealthy family. Most people believe that overseas experience provides a deeper understanding of cultures and develops communication skills. While this may be true, not all of these new experiences are useful for finding a job. Employers tend to value interpersonal skills and industry knowledge more than cultural background.
186) In the past, learning English as a separate subject seemed relatively easy. The textbook selected and graded items of language which were put into the content and then practiced intensively. New items were carefully controlled so that the student could cope quite easily. Now that English issued as a medium of instruction, however, all this has changed.
187) Many papers you write in college will require you to include quotes from one or more sources. Even if you don't have to do it, integrating a few quotes into your writing can add life and persuasiveness to your arguments. The key is to use quotes to support a point you're trying to make rather than just include them to fill space.
188) How do we imagine the unimaginable if we’re asked to think of an object say, a yellow tulip a picture immediately forms in our mind’s eye? But what if we try to imagine a concept such as the square root of negative number?
189) Charlie Parker noticed that the solos were only improvised through the melodies, but that he could also improvise them through the chords, thus creating new variations over the structure of the songs, and also playing more notes and faster.
190) Along with customary classes on subjects such as finance, accounting, and marketing, today’s MBA students are enrolling on courses for environmental policy and stewardship. Indeed, more than half of business schools require a course in environmental sustainability or corporate social responsibility, according to a survey of 91 US business schools, published in October 2005.
191) Surprisingly, despite what appear to be infinite variations, all difficult conversations share a common structure. When you're caught up in the details and anxiety of a particular difficult conversation, this structure is hard to see. But understanding that structure is essential to improving how you handle your most challenging conversations.
192) Once you've picked a general topic for your paper, you need to come up with a thesis. Your thesis is the main and focal point of your paper and it's the position you'll take on your particular topic. Formulating a strong thesis is one of the most important things you need to do to ace your paper.
193) The English Revolution has been interpreted in several ways by historians: as a fight between the aristocratic Cavaliers, who were open to life, and the serious Puritans; as a battle for power between parliament and the monarchy over the rights of Englishmen that had been going on for centuries; and as a class war similar to the French Revolution, of which it was a forerunner.
194) The student's reading in his own subject slows down, and his comprehension becomes less secure. He expresses himself slowly and often fails to convey his ideas exactly. He is disappointed to find that under pressure he makes a lot of unnecessary mistakes in areas where he knows the correct language forms. His social relations are difficult as he cannot find the right phrase quickly enough to keep a conversation going, so his language often betrays him into dullness, coldness, or worst of all, rudeness. Instead of the students being in control of the language, the language seems now to be in control of the students.
195) Parents need to take control of the television viewing of Pre-schoolers and children of early school age. A workable technique is to make a simple but firm weekly plan as to what programs will be permitted and how much time overall may be spent in viewing. Any child's weekly schedule normally involves a certain amount of time for school, naps, outdoor play and indoor play. There should not, therefore, be great amounts of unfilled time when the child gravitates towards the TV set.
196) Parents can communicate their personal feelings about undesirable programs both by discouraging their children from watching them and by writing to their local television station or to the program’s sponsors. The public does have a voice. Clearly, not all programs need please everybody. We do have a choice of programs and we also have a choice, for ourselves and at least for our younger children, of watching or not watching. There is an off button on every set!
197) Once you’ve picked a general topic for your paper, you need to come up with a thesis. Your thesis is the main and focal point of your paper and it’s the position you’ll take on your particular topic. Formulating a strong thesis is one of the most important things you need to do to ace your paper.
198) Students who wish to take a break from their studies will need to put in an application for Leave of Absence. If your application is successful, you will be notified via email. At the end of your Leave of Absence, you must re-enrol at Student Services and in the subjects, you intend to study.
199) A student exchange program complements formal education, while promoting tolerance, maturity and independence - all highly sought-after qualities in today's competitive job market. Living in the host country, not as a tourist or guest but as a member of the community, is what makes the experience both challenging and rewarding.
200) Group work is valuable because of the opportunities it provides for students to develop collaboration and communication skills. As an assessment task, it has the potential to pose difficulties in relation to appropriate acknowledgement of authorship of individual group members. These difficulties can be minimised by ensuring that the task is well designed, with the roles of individuals effectively identified.
201) DeLone and McLean’s model has been criticized by some authors. Indeed, this model is specific to contexts of voluntary use of information technology. The usage variable remains a success variable of information systems if the user himself decides to adopt or reject the technology. However, for mandatory uses, such as for ERP systems, the use of the technology is obvious. The success of information systems cannot, therefore, be measured by usage.
202) Today's technological market is dominated by two contrasting business models: the generative and the non-generative. The generative models - the PCs, Windows, and Macs of this world - allow third parties to build upon and share through them. The non-generative model is more restricted; appliances might work well, but the only entity that can change the way they operate is the vendor.
203) Never before has the world of journalism been so explosive, so global, and so competitive. Forget hourly news flashes; we live in a world of 24-hour breaking news, with radio and TV stations and Internet news sites updating stories by the minute.
204) The provision of accurate and authoritative statistical information strengthens modern societies. It provides a basis for decisions to be made on such things as where to open schools and hospitals, how much money to spend on welfare payments and even which football players to replace at half-time.
205) You may have heard of the new fad known as ecotourism. This means tourism which is environmentally friendly, and conscious about conserving the environment. The key is to minimize the physical, social and behavioural impacts of overseas travel. Tour groups will often work with local and indigenous communities to design respectful and memorable programs for visitors.
206) Hundreds of millions of American people eat fast food every day without giving it too much thought, unaware of the subtle and not so subtle ramifications of their purchases. They just grab their tray off the counter, find a table, take a seat, unwrap the paper, and dig in. The whole experience is transitory and soon forgotten.
207) Long isolated from Western Europe, Russia grew up without participating in the development like the Reformation that many Europeans taking pride in their unique culture, find dubious value. Russia is, as a result, the most unusual member of European family, if indeed it is European at all. The question is still open to debate, particularly among Russians themselves.
208) Two sisters were at a dinner party when the conversation turned to upbringing. The elder sister started to say that her parents had been very strict and that she had been rather frightened of them. Her sister, younger by two years, interrupted in amazement. “What are you talking about?” she said, “Our parents were very lenient”.
209) Few things in the world produce such amazement as one’s first of clippers of the Grand Canyon; it took around more than 2 billion years to create this vast wonder – in some places. 17 miles wide, largely through the relentless force of Colorado River, which runs 277 miles along its length, a mile beneath its towering rims.
210) Every morning, no matter how late he had been up, my father rose at five thirty, went to his study, wrote for a couple hours, made us all breakfast, read the paper with my mother and then went back to work for the rest of the morning. Many years passed before I realized that he did this for a living.
211) The beginning of the twenty-first century will be remembered, not for military conflicts or political events, but for a whole new age of globalization – a flattening’ of the world. The explosion of advanced technologies now means that suddenly knowledge pools and resources have connected all over the planet, levelling the playing field as never before.
212) The Grand Canyon is 277 miles long, up to 18 miles wide and attains a depth of over a mile. While the specific geologic processes and timing that formed the Grand Canyon are the subject of debate by geologists, recent evidence suggests the Colorado River established its course through the canyon at least 17 million years ago.
213) Although it hails from a remote region of the western Himalayas, this plant now looks entirely at home on the banks of English rivers. Brought to the UK in 1839, it quickly escaped colonized river banks and damp woodlands. Now it is spreading across Europe, New Zealand, and Canada. In the Himalayas, the plant is held in check by various pests, but take these away and it grows and reproduces unhindered.
214) Social media are playing an increasingly important role as information sources for travellers. The goal of this study is to investigate the extent to which social media appear in search engine results in the context of travel-related searches. It also provides evidence for challenges faced by traditional providers of travel-related information.
215) Imagine living all your life as the only family on your street. Then, one morning, you open the front door and discover houses all around you. You see neighbours tending their gardens and children walking to school. Where did all the people come from? What if the answer turned out to be that they had always been there—you just hadn't seen them?
216) Traditional divisions of domestic work are understood to persist because of the strong association of the home with humanity and paid work with masculinity - to challenge who does what in the home is arguably tantamount to challenge what it is to be a woman or a man.
217) The preparation of abstract is an intellectual effort requiring general familiarity with the subject to bring out of the points of an author's argument course for skills and experience. Consequently, a considerable amount of qualified manpower that could be used to advantage in other ways must be diverted to task of facilitating or to information.
218) The founding fathers established constitutional protections for the press because they understood that leaving the watchdog function to partisan politicians wouldn’t necessarily serve the public interest; both sides have too many incentives to preserve the status quo and ignore problems that elude quick fixes.
219) Living room is the most used part that withholds most of the traffic coming in and out of the house. It is highly recommended that the flooring should be strong enough that it can endure all such amendments done with your furniture or to the increasing and decreasing ratio of visitors. For this purpose, you can opt for hardwood flooring. Being classy and sophisticated in look it is the perfect choice for your living room whenever you are remodelling your home.
220) The uniquely scented flavour of vanilla is second only to chocolate in popularity on the world’s palate. It’s also the second most expensive spice after saffron. But highly labour intensive cultivation methods and the plant’s temperamental life cycle and propagation mean production on a global scale is struggling to keep up with the increasing demand for the product.
221) Using more than fifty interviews, award-winning writer Danny Danziger creates a fascinating mosaic of the people behind New York’s magnificent Metropolitan Museum of Art from the aristocratic, acerbic director of the museum, Philippe de Motebello, to the curators who have a deep knowledge and passionate appreciation of their collections from the security guards to the philanthropists who keep the museum’s financial lifeblood flowing.
222) It is difficult to tell whether the speaker approves of Hemingway’s lifestyle or not. He was famously macho and spent a lot of time hunting wild animals, going to wars and getting into fights. All these things got into his books, and the speakers think that this is not necessarily a good thing as it means that too many people prefer to read about his life than read his books.
223) Some people object that in order for the eye to modify and still remain a useful instrument to its owner, many changes would have had to take place simultaneously. However, it is not necessary to suppose this if the modifications were extremely slight and gradual.
224) The insults and criticism were not unexpected. What was surprising was people's enthusiasm about the competition. Thousands have participated in the discussion.
225) Networking is easy and fun because it taps into this human predilection to talk about ourselves when asked. Consider successful networking as little more than the process of guiding a person to tell you about his life, what he's doing, the company that employs him, and his current industry.
226) Akimbo, this must be one of the odder-looking words in the language and puzzles us in part because it doesn’t seem to have any relatives. What’s more, it is now virtually a fossil word, until recently almost invariably found in arms akimbo, a posture in which a person stands with hands-on hips and elbows sharply bent outward, one signalling impatience or hostility.
227) Ever since I remembered, father woke up at five-thirty every morning, made us all breakfast and read newspaper. After that he would go to work. He worked as a writer. It was a long time before I realize he did this for a living.
228) Northcote Parkinson, a British writer, formulated Parkinson’s rule: "Work expands to fill the time allotted to it; or, conversely, the amount of work completed is in inverse proportion to the number of people employed." Simply said: If you have an hour to do a 5-minute job, it will take an hour to do it. A large number of people accomplish less work than a smaller number of people.
229) Beauty contests, whether it's Miss Universe or Miss Teen International, are demeaning to women and out of sync with the times. Opponents say that they are nothing more than symbols of decline. Since Australians Jennifer Hawkins and Lauryn Eagle were crowned Miss Universe and Miss Teen International respectively, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in beauty pageants in this country.
230) Researchers have found that divorce has different kinds of negative impacts on the planet, including higher demand for resources and a lower rate of efficiency in the use of household resources. People have been talking about how to protect the environment and combat climate change, but divorce is an overlooked factor that needs to be considered.
231) In the photo, the wild cat's huge paws are clamped onto the side of the white safari Jeep in which Chappell was a passenger. Almost as tall as the Jeep on her hind legs, she appears to be forcing her muzzle into the back window.
232) Who do you think is the most glamorous person? A biotechnologist who led his company in international research, an ordinary welder who gained international fame through his work, or a photographer complimented widely for a series of photos?
233) A recent trend in the entertainment world is to adapt classic works of literature for either TV or movies. One argument is that this is to everyone’s benefit, as it introduces people to works they might otherwise never have, but is rarely done successfully.
234) They controlled for the birds' age, sex, body size and species. And they found that the hunted specimen’s brains were actually five percent smaller, on average, than the brains of birds that died by other means. "The surprising thing is that, if you make a smaller kind of analysis of liver or heart size, there is absolutely no difference there. So this is specific to the brain”.
235) The core of the problem was the immense disparity between the country‘s productive capacity and the ability of people to consume. Great innovations in productive techniques during and after the war raised the output of industry beyond the purchasing capacity of U.S. farmers and wage earners.
236) Study author Samuel Shian, a materials scientist, says this smart glass is cheaper than others, and uses minimal power much less, for example, than something like a curling iron. And since it's flexible and foldable, he says it could even be used for things like camouflage uniforms, to switch, for example, from green and brown to white and gray.
237) The term supernova was coined in the 1930s by a memorably odd astrophysicist named Fritz Zwicky. Born in Bulgaria and raised in Switzerland, Zwicky came to the California Institute of Technology in the 1920s and there as once distinguished himself by his abrasive personality and erratic talents. He didn’t seem to be outstandingly bright, and many of his colleagues considered him little more than “an irritating buffoon”.
238) Where there are effects, there are often side effects. The car is a boon to mobility, but can lead to obesity, deaths and pollution. Burning fossil fuel may keep economies going, but wrecks the climate in the long run. In a similar way, there are side effects to information technology in education settings - from childcare to the classroom to the lecture hall and beyond.
239) "There are perhaps three ways of looking at furniture: some people see it as purely functional and useful, and don’t bother themselves with aesthetics; others see it as essential to civilized living and concern themselves with design and how the furniture will look in a room - in other words, function combined with aesthetics; and yet others see furniture as a form of art."
240) Domestication is an evolutionary, rather than political development. They were more likely to survive and prosper in an alliance with humans than on their own. Humans provided the animals with food and protection, in exchange for which the animals provided the humans with their milk and eggs and – yes -- their flesh.
241) Introverts (or those of us with introverted tendencies) tend to recharge by spending time alone. They lose energy from being around people for long periods of time, particularly large crowds. Extroverts, on the other hand, gain energy from other people. Extroverts actually find their energy is sapped when they spend too much time alone. They recharge by being social.
242) A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area. The earliest types of guild formed as confraternities of tradesmen. They have organized in a manner something between a professional association, a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society.
243) Psychologist Saho Takagi, a graduate student at Kyoto University in Japan, strolls into one of Japan’s many cat cafes. These establishments allow customers to pay an hourly fee for the chance to cuddle some cats. They're popular in Japan because so many apartment buildings forbid pet ownership. But Takagi isn’t a typical customer. She’s not there for feline affection, but to probe their minds.
244) New research shows that during the global financial crisis, workers who stayed in the jobs did not reduce their working hours, despite claims that cuts in hours have to prevent job losses, the study found that life of people who remained same employers stayed relatively unchanged.
245) Each tube-shaped microbot is a sandwich of three materials. A graphene outer layer, which binds to heavy metals. A middle layer of nickel, which gives the bots magnetic polarity, so they can be pulled through wastewater with magnets. And platinum inside—for propulsion. Just add a bit of peroxide to the wastewater, and it'll react with the platinum to form water and oxygen bubbles, which propel the tubes along.
246) By beginning so early, he knows that he has plenty of time to do thoroughly all the work he can be expected to do. All his work having been finished in good time, he has a long interval of rest in the evening before the timely hour when he goes to bed. After a sound night's rest, he rises early next morning in good health and spirits for the labours of a new day.
247) It's not that human activities didn't impact wildlife at all of course. Heavily hunted species, like white-tailed deer, grey squirrels, and raccoons, were photographed somewhat less often in hunted areas. Coyotes showed up more often in hunted areas. While most species didn't avoid hiking trails, the predators actually preferred them.
248) For diplomacy the starting point must be that globalisation requires bridges and removes barriers. A policy of containment is a difficult strategy in the age of the fibre-optic cable, the jumbo jet and the satellite dish. There will always be the exception, such as the murderous regime in Iraq where the only safe strategy is to keep it in the isolation ward until it accepts the norms of international behaviour. Or the military dictatorship in Burma which has persistently failed to respond to dialogue. It takes two to critically engage.
249) Margaret Simons explains the changes taking place in the Australian media. She analyses audiences, our major media organisations, the role of government – and the implications of all of these for our society and our democracy. Her examination leads her to the conclusion that the challenges facing the content providers in the modern world are part of a broader striving, a very old struggle – we might call it the search for meaning.
250) Housing fulfils the basic needs that people have for security, privacy and shelter. While the adequacy of housing is an important component of individual well-being, housing also has a great impact on the nation's economy, with its influence on investment levels. interest rates. building activity and employment.
251) Tourism is a challenging sector on which divides statistic since businesses serving tourists, also service local people. Therefore, it is not straightforward to estimate how much business sectors' revenue and how many jobs are due to tourist expenditures.
252) While far fewer people these days write letters and therefore have less use for stamps, there are still a few categories of stamp which attract collectors. Stamps in common use for an indefinite period - until the price goes up - are called "definitive" issues, while a more collectible type of stamp is the "commemorative" issue, honouring people, events and anniversaries.
253) All the works of art shown in this exhibition were purchased on a shoestring budget. The criteria that the curators had to follow were that works must be acquired cheaply, appeal to a broad range of tastes, and fit with unusual environments. Thus, many of our better known modern artists are not represented.
254) What can history tell us about contemporary society? Generally, in the past, even in Europe until the 18th century, it was assumed that it could tell how any society should work. The past was the model for the present and the future. It represented the key to the genetic code by which each generation produced its successors and ordered their relationships.
255) The semiconductor industry has been able to improve the performance of electric systems for more than four decades by making ever-smaller devices. However, this approach will soon encounter both scientific and technical limits, which is why the industry is exploring a number of alternative device technologies.
256) Global warming is defined as an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere. This trend began in the middle of the 20th century and is one of the major environmental concerns of scientists and government officials worldwide. The changes in temperature result mostly from the effect of increased concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere.
257) A scientist’s evidence is thought to be reliable because it will have been tested and verified at every stage. This is not, of course, infallible as scientists are subject to human error as much as the rest of us.
258) Scientists know little about how exactly it works, especially when it comes to complex functions like memory formation. Research is more advanced in animals, but experiments on humans are hard. Yet, even today, some parts of the brain, like the motor cortex, are better understood. Nor is complete knowledge always needed. Machine learning can recognise patterns of neural activity; the brain itself gets the hang of controlling BCIS with extraordinary ease. And neurotechnology will reveal more of the brain’s secrets.
259) It seems that, when it comes to love, men and women are designed to misconstrue, misread and misunderstand one another – and themselves. Look more closely at the unconscious workings of the mating mind, however, and you discover that in fact they make good sense.
260) In recent years there have been one or two significant happenings that have kept alive the hope that the deep sea may conceal strange links with the past. In December 1938, off the southeast tip of Africa, an amazing fish was caught alive – a fish that was supposed to have been dead for at least 60 million years.
261) Internal combustion engine, enabling the driver to decide which source of power is appropriate for the travel requirements of given journey. Major US auto manufacturers are now developing feasible hybrid electric vehicles, and some are exploring fuel-cell technology for their electric cars.
262) Scientific studies show that by age three there is a gap in brain development between kids who are read to aloud and those who are not, and children from low-income families are disproportionately impacted by this gap. Making sure all parents know the importance of reading aloud to their children is critical to closing the achievement gap.
263) At the end of this year, we will launch the cup class boats. So these will be about twice the power. The sailors are down in cockpits, unlike today. A lot of power is being generated by these four grinders that are providing hydraulic power, and that energy is being used to control the flying surface, the hydrofoil… and is also being used to control the wing and the flaps, effectively the engine, of what we have.
264) Howard believed that all clouds belonged to three distinct groups: cumulus, stratus and cirrus. He added a fourth category, nimbus, to describe a cloud ‘in the act of condensation into rain, hail or snow’. It is by observing how clouds change colour and shape that weather can be predicted, and as long as the first three of cloud keep their normal shape there won’t be any rain.
265) First discovered in 2007, “fast radio burst” continue to defy explanation. These cosmic chirps last a thousandth of a second. The characteristics of the radio pulses suggested that they came from galaxies billions of light-years away. However, new works point to a much closer origin flaring star within our own galaxy.
266) One of the unidentifiable objects in this study lies just outside Centaurus A (NGC 5128), an elliptical galaxy located about 12 million light-years from Earth. The other is in a globular cluster of stars found just outside NGC 4636, another elliptical galaxy located 47 million lightyears from Earth in the constellation Virgo.
267) The tsunamis could provide crucial information about the habitability of ancient Mars. The first one occurred when the planet must have been relatively warm and amenable for life because it carved out backwash channels as it returned to the sea. By contrast, the planet had become much cooler by the time the second tsunami hit—the waters apparently flash-frozen after flowing onto the surface.
268) Pluto lost its official status as a planet yesterday when the International Astronomical Union downsized the solar system from nine to eight planets. Although there had been a passionate debate at the IAU General Assembly Meeting in Prague about the definition of a planet - and whether Pluto met the specifications - the audience greeted the decision to exclude it with applause.
269) The best comparison is likely a magnetar, a young neutron star with a powerful magnetic field, the researchers said. Magnetars also produce bright X-ray flares. While magnetars are thought to be young stars, the two flaring objects in this study reside near elliptical galaxies, which contain older stars. So the objects are likely too old to be magnetars, the researchers said.
270) Historically what has been used to estimate bats has been photographic estimates, visual estimates, mark-recapture estimates, and those have been highly prone to bias. "Newer technology, like thermal imaging cameras is accurate but expensive. So at a time of epic bat mortality- due to, for example, the fungal white-nose syndrome that's wiping out bats in Canada and the U.S"
271) But they did find something that had a much bigger impact on wildlife: habitat quality. The best predictor of wildlife abundance was not human activity, but factors like forest connectivity, nearby housing density, and the amount of adjacent agriculture. The results were published in the Journal of Applied Ecology.
272) This study marks the first time scientists have linked dike formation to large, damaging earthquakes, and Wauthier is looking back through history for more examples. She says researchers will never be able to predict exactly when an earthquake might strike after a dike intrusion. But at least now, researchers and rift zone residents know they're not just in for bangs they may also be in for shudders.
273) Your body's composed of trillions of cells-lots of different types of cells that make up different organs and other parts of your body. Your body is also where 10 times that number of bacteria call 'home sweet home.' But don't be afraid these bacteria do more good than harm to you. And besides, just in case you wanted to strike up a conversation with your tenants, you and your bacteria do have a few things in common.
274) Yellow is the most optimistic colour, yet surprisingly, people lose their tempers most often in yellow rooms and babies cry more in them. The reason may be that yellow is the hardest colour on the eye. On the other hand, it speeds metabolism and enhances concentration; think of yellow legal pads and post-it notes.
275) A study found that the research funded by the soft drinks industry has different results from research funded by other sources and went on to suggest that there may have been biased by the research itself. The whole point of the scientific methods is to ensure the research results are not influenced by the source of funding.
276) As introverts are thinking, they reach back into long-term memory to locate information. An introvert will often compare old and new experiences when making a decision, which slows the processing down but leads to carefully thought-out decisions. This means that introverts have an active dialogue with themselves and usually walk around with many thoughts in their minds.
277) The human animal's status as the only clever tool-user who can talk about our feelings is crumbling. Prairie dogs can make up words for new animals. Crows are born with the ability to make tools. Elephants recognize and stroke the bones of a lost family member. As biologists delve into these subjects, they're demonstrating that we're not nearly as unique as we once thought. It's the perfect time, scientifically speaking, to reassess our place in the animal kingdom.
278) The shuttle was designed to be a space truck; it’s a multi-purpose vehicle. We’ve done a tremendous member of different things with it. It’s the most versatile space vehicle that has ever been built. We’ve used it to launch satellites. We’ve used it to repair satellites in orbit and put them back into orbit. We’ve used it capture satellites and bring them back to Earth for repair.
279) A team of Johns Hopkins scientists study sodium channels responsible for electrical signalling in nerve cells from humans and from cockroaches. Spider venom protein messes with these sodium channels- which is why venom is dangerous. The researchers then use spider venom protein to disrupt the channels and thus clarify exactly how the channels function.
280) We've outfitted it with the space lab built by our European partners and used it before the era of the space station to do scientific research. We used it as part of our partnership with the Russians, which is still continuing, first as part of the Mir space station, where we actually prolonged the useful life of Mir by several years through logistical supply visits with the shuttle. And now, of course, we're using it to build the new international space station, which is a huge international partnership.
281) There are a number of tests available which can suggest if a person is telling the truth, but knowing which ones are accurate is not easy. A newly created test is claimed to be the most accurate yet in lie detection. However, questions have been raised about its accuracy and ethics.
282) Tidal energy, also known as tidal power, is a renewable source of energy and a form of hydropower used to generate electricity from the energy of the tides. Though not currently widely utilised, due to high costs and limited availability, it can be called the energy resource of the future given the current rate of depletion of energy resources.
283) Honey has traditionally been credited with significant medical powers, and it has played a major part in many folk remedies. But it seems now its efficacy is not just an old wives’ tale. Recent research has shown there is scientific evidence to prove that honey contains elements that prevent bacteria from growing.
284) Taking soundings in the deep ocean was, and long remained a laborious and time-consuming task, and knowledge of the undersea topography lagged considerably behind our acquaintance with the landscape of the near side of the moon. Over the years, methods were improved.
285) There are many kinds of the pond, but nearly all are small bodies of shallow, stagnant water in which plants with roots can grow. Water movement is slight, and temperatures fluctuate widely. The wealth of plants ensures that during daylight hours oxygen is plentiful. However, at night, when photosynthesis no longer takes place, oxygen supplies can fall very low.
286) Foam-filled furniture is very dangerous if it catches fire, and foam quickly produces a high temperature, thick smoke and poisonous gases - including carbon monoxide. Therefore, set levels of fire resistance have been established for new and second-hand upholstered furniture and other similar products.
287) The starting point of Bergson's theory is the experience of time and motion. Time is the reality we experience most directly, but this doesn't mean that we can capture this experience mentally. The past is gone and the future is yet to come. The only reality is the present, which is real through our experience.
288) Orientalists, like many other nineteenth-century thinkers, conceive of humanity either in large collective terms or in abstract generalities. Orientalists are neither interested in nor capable of discussing individuals; instead, artificial entities predominate. Similarly, the age-old distinction between “Europe” and “Asia” or “Occident” and “Orient” herds beneath very wide labels every possible variety of human plurality, reducing it in the process to one or two terminal collective realities.
289) Tesla actually worked for Edison early in his career. Edison offered to pay him the modern equivalent of a million dollars to fix the problems he was having with his DC generators and motors. Tesla fixed Edison‘s machines and when he asked for the money he was promised, Edison laughed him off and had this to say, “Tesla, you don‘t understand our American humour.”
290) In his landmark account, first published over twenty years ago, the author argues that the ignorance and lethargy of the poor are direct results of the whole situation of economic, social and political domination. By being kept in a situation in which critical awareness and response are practically impossible, the disadvantaged are kept ‘submerged’.
291) The diversity of human language may be compared to the diversity of the natural world. Just as the demise of plant species reduces genetic diversity, and deprives humanity or potential medical and biological resources. So the extinction of language takes with it a wealth of culture, art and knowledge.
292) Marriage is a big step in anyone’s life and there is an argument to be made against getting married too early. As any newlywed couple knows, there is a huge amount of financial pressure associated with marriage. Firstly, the wedding reception and honeymoon will cost you an arm and a leg. Then there’s the matter of home loans, rent and energy bills. If you’re looking to start a family, your child’s education is another thing you need to save up for. Teenagers should probably find a proper job before deciding to tie the knot.
293) Introvert (or those of us with introverted tendencies) tends to recharge by spending time alone. They lose energy from being around people for long periods of time, particularly large crowds. Extroverts, on the other hand, gain energy from other people. Extroverts actually find their energy is sapped when they spend too much time alone. They recharge by being social.
294) In a genuine republic, the will of the government is dependent on the will of the society, and the will of the society is dependent on the reason of the society. In Federalist 51, for example, James Madison claimed that the extent and structure of the government of the United States make it dependent on the will of society.
295) Welfare has a special political meaning to the United States because it refers to how the poor receive financial aid. In comparison, welfare services are regarded as a universal right in other regions like Europe, where it is believed that all citizens should be able to obtain a minimal level of social support and well-being.
296) Unions take the power out of the employer's hands-on many issues. There are examples of cases where workers were engaged in sexual or racial harassment but were protected by their unions and allowed to keep their jobs. Poor workers and excellent workers often receive the same pay and raise, giving no reason for a person to work harder than necessary at their job.
297) All cells share some common characteristics that make them living things. All organisms are composed of cells, the basic fundamental unit of life. They contain DNA as a heritable genetic material, and they can reproduce. They transcribe DNA into RNA and translate RNA into proteins on ribosomes. They can also regulate transport across a cell membrane and require chemical energy for some cellular processes.
298) In the Middle Ages, the design and use of flags were considered a means of identifying social status. Flags were, therefore, the symbols not of nations, but of the nobility. The design of each flag resembled the “devices” on the noble’s Coat of Arms, and the size of the flag was an indication of how high the owner stood in the nobility.
299) Moods may also have an effect on how information is processed, by influencing the extent to which judges reply on pre-existing, internal information, or focus on new, external information. Positive moods promote more holistic and top-down processing style, while negative moods recruit more stimulus-driven and bottom-up processing.
300) Introverts (or those of us with introverted tendencies) tend to recharge by spending time alone. They lose energy when being around people for a long period of time, particularly large crowds. Extroverts, on the other hand, gain energy from other people. Extroverts actually find their energy is sapped when they spend too much time alone. They recharge by being social.
301) In the spirit of comparative immunology, Baker and her colleagues looked at how another mammal—the black flying fox, a type of bat—handles infections. They sequenced its immunity genes and observed the immune response in normal bat cells. And they found that, unlike us—the bats always have interferons on patrol. Meaning the proteins do not wait to be activated by invaders. And the researchers say that this constant state of high alert may be why bats can carry Ebola, Nipah virus, and a whole lot of other infections with no symptoms at all.
302) The number one biggest difference between the bacteria in your body and the cells making up your body are these tiny cellular components called organelles. You've actually learned a lot about organelles in other lessons without knowing it. Organelles are simply membrane-bound compartments within a cell, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum.
303) Organelles are the biggest difference between bacteria and cells that make up the human body Organelles. You are a eukaryote. Your cells are eukaryotic. Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus. Eukaryotes can be single-celled or multi-celled, such as you, me, plants, fungi, and insects.
304) In exchange for these services the grasses offer ruminants a plentiful and exclusive supply of lunch. For cows have evolved the special ability to convert grass - which single-stomached creatures like us can't digest - into high-quality protein. They can do this because they possess what is surely the most highly evolved digestive organ in nature: the rumen. About the size of a medicine ball, the organ is essentially a forty-five-gallon fermentation tank in which a resident population of bacteria dines on grass.
305) Specific compounds are transformed by and strongly associated with specific bacteria in native biological soil crust (biocrust) using a suite of tools called 'exometabolomics.' Understanding how microbial communities in biocrusts adapt to harsh environments could shed light on the roles of soil microbes in the global carbon cycle.
306) Our field teams have come across fish in distress or even eels stranded and it is simply that the water's got too hot. Often dissolved oxygen concentrations go down as water temperature increases and animals may seek refuge outside the water, or in fact they may be stranded if the water's evaporating very quickly.
307) Conservationists in New Zealand have come up with a novel way of raising money for one of the country's lesser-known endangered bird species - by holding a race to see which male stitch bird, or Hihi, has the fastest sperm. The Great Hihi Sperm Race will pit samples from birds collected from four different Hihi colonies, and donors can place a ten NZ dollar bet on which of the 128 samples swims the fastest.
308) Scientists have captured the first footage in the wild of one of the world's rarest - and ugliest - pigs. The Javan warty pig is under such threat from hunting and habitat loss that conservationists surveying its habitat believed it might already have been driven to extinction. Camera traps have now revealed that small populations survive in Java's increasingly fragmented forests.
309) In most animals, the brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing, taste and olfaction. In humans, it is an organ of thought. While all vertebrates have a brain, invertebrates have either a centralized brain or collections of individual ganglia.
310) Published March 27 in Scientific Reports, a new study co-led by an NYU School of Medicine pathologist reveals that layers of the body long thought to be dense, connective tissues -- below the skin's surface, lining the digestive tract, lungs and urinary systems, and surrounding arteries, veins, and the fascia between muscles -- are instead interconnected, fluid-filled compartments.
311) Although Botswana’s economic outlook remains strong, the devastation that AIDS has caused threatens to destroy the country’s future. In 2001, Botswana has the highest rate of HIV infection in the world. With the help of international donors, it launched an ambitious national campaign that provided free antiviral drugs to anyone who needed them, and by March 2004, Botswana’s infection rate has dropped significantly.
312) Shoppers hoping to bag a bargain in the post-Christmas sales are much less likely to go through with their purchases if they are using phones and tablets to buy goods online.
313) The current law, which enables employers to fire new staff within the first 90 days without giving a reason, and without facing legal action for unfair dismissal, was introduced in 2009. Under the new law, the 90-day trial will remain as it is for businesses with fewer than 20 employees. Larger businesses will still be able to use the 90-day trial as a probationary period, but with greater protections for employees.
314) The Conference Board’s consumer-confidence index, which measures both American consumers’ assessment of current conditions and their expectations, rose to its highest level since 2001. Updated figures from the Commerce Department confirmed earlier estimates that the economy grew by 1.6% year-on-year in 2016, the slowest rate for five years—though growth picked up to 1.9% in the final quarter.
315) After a century of making sausage, the Oberto family is selling their namesake business to a large Canadian food conglomerate. But the local management says Oberto’s employees, manufacturing plant and sponsored hydroplanes with the red-white-and-green livery will see few changes. Premium Brand Holdings, which is based in Richmond, B.C., and owns dozens of food manufacturers and distributors, is set to buy “substantially all” of Oberto Brands’ assets.
316) Does it feel like everywhere you turn there's more food? Fast food joints like McDonalds and Taco Bell abound. And big box stores like Costco, Walmart and Target sell mounds of groceries. Just the slightest pang of hunger and around the corner there's another restaurant or retailer enticing us to buy more food.
317) Over the centuries, the holiday evolved, and by the 18th century, gift-giving and exchanging handmade cards on Valentine's Day had become common in England. Handmade Valentine's cards made of lace, ribbons, and featuring cupids and hearts eventually spread to the American colonies. The tradition of Valentine's cards did not become widespread in the United States, however, until the 1850s.
318) Unlike the iconic Nasca lines—most of which are only visible from overhead—the older Paracas glyphs were laid down on hillsides, making them visible to villages below. The two cultures also pursued different artistic subjects: Nasca lines most often consist of lines or polygons, but many of the newfound Paracas figures depict humans.
319) Every culture is riddled with unwritten rules, such as ones on punctuality. They are the invisible scaffold that frames the behaviour of individuals so that the collective can function in a frictionless and productive way. But the rigour of these rules and the exactitude with which they are enforced varies dramatically. Some nations tolerate singing in an elevator, swearing during an interview or entering a bank barefoot, for example, while others frown upon such behaviours.
320) Until fairly recent times, the origin of birds was one of evolution's great mysteries. This is no longer the case. Fossil evidence from China now conclusively proves that there is an evolutionary link between birds and several types of extinct prehistoric reptiles which lived millions of years ago, or in other words, dinosaurs.
321) It has not yet been definitively proven that viewing violence on television will lead a child into violent behaviour. But even experts agree that it's not good for a child to be exposed constantly, several hours a day, day after day, week after week, to television violence. Research has shown that such exposure has at least four effects: children may become less sensitive to the pain and suffering of others; they may become more fearful of the world around them; they may be more likely to behave in an aggressive manner toward other people; they may get an unrealistic sense of the amount of true violence that exists in the world.
322) Children need to discover their own strengths and weaknesses in order to find fulfilment as adults in both work and play. Watching television does not lead to these discoveries; it only limits children's involvement in those real-life activities that might offer their abilities a genuine testing ground. And young children's need for fantasy is gratified far better by their own make-believe activities than by the adult-made fantasies they are offered on television.
323) Parents can demonstrate while the child is still very young that TV is a medium to be used selectively. They can quite literally point children in the direction of informative, educational programs. There are some remarkable things for a pre-schooler to see and enjoy on television, and parents can impart the wonders of it while discouraging undesirable programs. Parents of young children should remember that while television undoubtedly does, through its better programs at least, provide pre-schoolers with considerable useful information, it doesn't make them smarter or improve their school performance.
324) It isn't rare for private equity houses to hire grads fresh out of business school, he said, but 9 times out of 10, the students who nab these jobs are the ones who had private equity experience under their belt before even starting their MBA program.
325) With revenue from college football at an unprecedented $3.4 billion annually, universities across the country invest millions each year in recruitment efforts for high school football players. But with talented players typically receiving multiple scholarship offers, team rosters are in limbo until student-athletes commit to a university.
326) We've been training fewer teachers in recent years while the population has been increasing and a very large cohort of teachers, the baby boomer teachers, are nearing retirement. So, all three of those things have converged to create what I think is going to be an even greater problem in coming years to what it is now, so we've got a lot of work to do a very rapid catch-up.
327) For example, students might try to enrol for the free year despite having previously studied and therefore being ineligible. The report said the government-held no records of study from before 2003 in order to verify eligibility, meaning it would have to rely on students' declarations.
328) Children will lack the work skills they need in the future because they are not spending enough time playing, a Lego executive has warned. John Goodwin, head of Lego's charitable arm the Lego Foundation, says less time in the classroom and more time playing is the solution. The foundation has a 25% stake in the Danish toy market, giving it a vested interest in encouraging play.
329) Mandarin learning has grown in popularity in the United Kingdom in the wake of the British government acknowledging the importance of China as a key partner after the nation leaves the European Union. Earlier this month, the Foreign Office hosted a special celebration Mandarin lesson involving 140 British pupils from 14 secondary schools, to show the Chinese government the significant progress British people have made in learning the language.
330) Different types of maternal homework assistance have a different impact on the child's way of completing school assignments in grades 2 to 4 of elementary school, according to a new study. Although all homework assistance presumably aims at helping the child, not all types of homework assistance lead to equally positive outcomes.
331) Human activities are exposing US rivers and streams to a cocktail of salts, with consequences for infrastructure and drinking water supplies. So, reports a new study that is the first to assess the combined, long-term changes in freshwater salinity and alkalization across the country.
332) In the past 50 years, the amount of water in the open ocean with zero oxygen has gone up more than fourfold. In coastal water bodies, including estuaries and seas, low-oxygen sites have increased more than tenfold since 1950. Scientists expect oxygen to continue dropping even outside these zones as Earth warms.
333) About 46,000 nuclear weapons were produced during the Cold War era, leading to tremendous volumes of acidic radioactive liquid waste seeping into the environment. A new study suggests yeast as a potentially safer and more cost effective way to help clean up these radioactive waste sites.
334) Fire crews have worked through the night trying to control a number of bush fires burning in Western Australia's southwest. The department upgraded the alert level from "watch and act" to "emergency" and advised residents to take necessary steps to ensure their safety. Conditions there have eased overnight and the spread of the blaze has slowed. The firefighting effort will be reassessed at first light.
335) The fine details of how glaciers are linked to volcanic eruptions are unknown. But volcanologists theorize that pressure is key. The idea is that the weight of large ice sheets compresses the crust and mantle below. That closes up channels within the rock through which magma travels towards the surface. It also leaves less room for surface water to make its way down into the rocks, where, as steam, it can increase the pressure within magma chambers. Remove the ice, by contrast, and those processes go into reverse.
336) Nurse sharks are thought to take advantage of dormant fish which would otherwise be too fast for the sharks to catch, although their small mouths limit the size of prey items, the sharks have large throat cavities which are used as a sort of bellows valve. In this way, nurse sharks are able to suck in their prey. Nurse sharks are also known to graze algae and coral.
337) If the dream is to turn this palm-fringed corner of Hainan into a tourist trap comparable to Florida's balmy space coast, there is still a lot to do. Several idle building sites suggest that some investors have gambled rashly. Signs have been taken down from a patch of scrub that was once earmarked for an amusement centre.
338) Locals in central Finland are campaigning to have reindeer corralled all year round in a dispute with traditional herders. In what's been described as a "reindeer rebellion", people living in North Ostrobothnia and Kainuu regions want tighter restrictions on herding, because they say that the free-range animals are damaging their crops and forests and harming their livelihoods.
339) On 1815, on the island of Sumbawa in Indonesia, a handsome and long quiescent mountain named Tambora exploded spectacularly, killing a hundred thousand people with its blast and associated tsunamis. No one living now has ever seen such fury. Tambora was far bigger than anything any living human has experienced. It was the biggest volcanic explosion in ten thousand years, 150 times the size of Mount St. Helens, equivalent to sixty thousand Hiroshima- sized atom bombs.
340) MEXICO CITY — A miner in the state of Chiapas found a tiny tree frog that has been preserved in amber for 25 million years, a researcher said. If authenticated, the preserved frog would be the first of its kind found in Mexico, according to David Grimaldi, a biologist and curator at the American Museum of Natural History, who was not involved in the find.
341) The so-called continuing resolution keeps the government funded until 8 February in the hope that Congress can reach a longer-term budget agreement in the meantime. Thousands of federal employees who had been placed on temporary, unpaid leave since Saturday breathed a sigh of relief.
342) The government is still not sure whether its alternative idea for Auckland's America's Cup Village is viable, a week out from the start of the planning approval process. Auckland Council is seeking approval to build eight bases across three wharves, but the government was in favour of focusing on the semi-industrial Wynyard Point, to lessen the extension of wharves.
343) A South Korean court ordered the arrest of Park Geun-Hye, the former president, on charges of bribery and abuse of power. Ms Park, who was removed from office three weeks ago, will be jailed while prosecutors seek an indictment for her alleged role in a corruption scandal. The court said that if Ms Park was not taken into custody she might “destroy evidence”.
344) The Mexican government began a 90-day consultation on the North American Free Trade Agreement with the country’s lawmakers and the business community. The discussion is required before holding talks with America to review NAFTA’s terms. Donald Trump wants to renegotiate the trade pact—of which Canada is also a member—to get better terms for America.
345) Ford made a U-turn, scrapping plans for a 1.6 billion factory in Mexico to build compact cars, and diverting some of the investment to a plant near Detroit to produce electric vehicles. Ford stressed that this was a commercial decision. Donald Trump had criticized the proposed Mexican factory while campaigning on the theme of saving American jobs.
346) Ministers have rehearsed for the Queen's death for the first time with a secret exercise to prepare for 10 days of national mourning, it has emerged. The run-through, apparently known as Castle Dove, saw Cabinet ministers and Whitehall officials discuss 'D+1', the day after the monarch's death.
347) Britain, then, as slower to create and develop a police force than the rest of Europe. France had one long before indeed, the word police is taken from the French. This fact was not unimportant, as the very idea of a police force was seen as foreign that is, French and particularly undesirable, and was generally regarded as a form of oppression.
348) So why not switch on those interferons 24/7 in humans? Well in us, they also tend to cause lots of inflammation and cell damage. Like the symptoms you feel from the flu—a lot of that is your immune system's fault. But the key might be to do as the bats do. If we can just skew the response of our immune system so it triggers an antiviral response without the pro-inflammatory effects, then we might have something we can work with in terms of a novel therapeutic for humans. Bats have long been known to harbor disease. So it would be fitting if they also taught us how to fight it.
349) According to recent research. sunshine and warm weather have a positive effect on our moods. The British Journal of Psychology has published a report in which it claims that anxiety levels fall when temperatures rise, while increased exposure to sunshine makes us think more positively about our lives.
350) Scientists have discovered a way that bacteria in the gut can control genes in our cells. Their work shows that chemical messages from bacteria can alter chemical markers throughout the human genome. The signal chemicals are made when bacteria digest fruits and vegetables. By communicating in this way, the bacteria may help to fight infections and to prevent cancer.
351) In a new study of childhood mortality rates between 1961 and 2010 in the United States and 19 economically similar countries, researchers report that while there's been overall improvement among all the countries, the U.S. has been slowest to improve. Infants in the U.S. were 76 percent more likely to die.
352) Women today tend to live longer than men almost everywhere worldwide -- in some countries by more than a decade. Now, three centuries of historical records show that women don't just outlive men in normal times: They're also more likely to survive even in the worst of circumstances, such as famines and epidemics.
353) Exercise can reverse damage to sedentary, aging hearts and help prevent risk of future heart failure -- if it's enough exercise, and if it's begun in time, according to a new study by cardiologists.
354) Facebook has defended itself against claims that using the site can damage wellbeing and mental health. In a blogpost, it said while there was evidence it could negatively affect mood, the way it affected people was determined by how they used it. Facebook's downsides could be combated by making more use of the site and interacting positively. A social media expert said the way Facebook was built made it hard to use it in those better ways.
355) The World Health Organisation said an experimental malaria vaccine will be tested on more than 750,000 children in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi next year. The disease causes more than 400,000 deaths annually. How the vaccine is implemented will be key to its success: it must be administered four times, with the final dose 18 months after the third.
356) Japan's Parliament tightened limits on overtime hours, responding to concerns about karoshi, or death by overwork, and seeking to improve productivity in a country where long hours are more custom than business necessity.
357) Australian workplaces are increasingly suffering from depression, anxiety and stress, according to a large study of mental health in corporate Australia. Mental illness appears to have increased by a third in the last decade. Depression is now the primary mental health disorder.
358) To forgive an injury is often considered to be a sign of weakness. It is really a sign of strength. It is easy to allow oneself to be carried away by resentment and hate into an act of vengeance, but it takes a strong character to restrain those natural passions. The man who forgives an injury proves himself to be the superior of the man who wronged him.
359) Never has the world of journalism been so explosive, so global, and so competitive. Forget hourly news flashes; we live in a world of 24-hour breaking news with radio and TV stations and Internet sites updating stories by the minute and newspapers adjusting to stay fresh, in-depth, and relevant.
360) Most words have experienced several changes in the meaning throughout their history so that it is impossible to say which stage in their meaning is the "true" meaning. And if we attempt to go back to "the beginning." we find it is impossible, for the origins of many words are difficult to trace back.