Listening-Fill in the blanks
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Teamwork can also lead to ____________a common cause of poor sales. In the case of a smartphone that a certain company____________ , one director wanted to target the business market, and another demanded it was________ at consumers. The company wanted both directors to be ________, so gave the product a consumer-friendly name, but marketed it to companies. The result was that it met the needs of neither group. It would have been better to let one director or the other have his way, not both. Now__________ , or hard work. It’s easy to ____________ people who say they work hard.
Carbon-rich soil is dark, ___________and fertile, and retains some water. But erosion can occur if soil is dry, which is a likely effect if it contains__________amounts of carbon. Erosion is of course bad for people trying to grow crops or __________ animals on that ___________. In the 1970s and 80s, Lal was studying soils in Africa so __________ of organic matter that the ground had become extremely hard, like cement. There he met a __________in the study of global warming, who suggested that carbon from the soil had moved into the atmosphere. This is now looking___________ likely.
So the phone company designed phones for use ______________with this added feature.____________research has also been carried out in computer companies. In one company, IT systems ____________ were observed for several weeks. It was found that a large amount of their work involved communicating with ____________in order to solve problems, but that they didn’t have a standard way of ___________information from ____________and so on. So the team came up with an idea for software that would help them to do this.
So how was this reflected in the design of the building? Well, Harrison decided to create _____________access to the building and to make use of the _________ of water on the site. As people approach the_________ , they therefore have to cross over a bridge. He wanted to give people a feeling of ___________ as they see the building first from a distance, and then close-up, and the initial ____________he wanted to create from the shape of the building as a whole was that of a box.
The main reason why MSG is more commonly used in Japanese meals is ___________. For many thousands of years the Japanese have ____________ a type of ____________known as Kombu in their cooking, as they discovered it had the ability to make food taste better. But it wasn’t until 1908 that the ___________in Kombu which was responsible for the ____________in flavor was actually discovered to be glutamate by scientists working there.
Living in the Antarctic hasn’t always been so comfortable. Snow build-ups caused _________ problems for four ________ stations on the same site, which were buried and finally ___________ by the weight. Fortunately no-one was hurt, but these buildings became a huge __________to architects who finally came up with a remarkable solution the buildings are placed on _______which can be raised above the changing snow level on legs which are ____________ .
I’m left-handed myself and I actually didn’t see any _________to my own life when I happened to start reading an article by a sports psychologist called Peter Matthews. He spent the first part of the _________ talking about _________ in music instead of sport, which I have to say almost put me off from reading further. But what I soon became _________ by was the sheer volume of both observation and _________ he had done in many different sports and I felt _________that what he had to say would be of real interest.
You wake up in the middle of the night in a _________ hotel miles away from home, _________ most probably from jet lag, when even the most expensive _________ can seem empty and dispiriting. You have paid a great deal of money to stay in this first-class hotel with its _________ technology , but according to recent research carried out by an international travel and public relations company, all is not well.
Consumers will have much more choice - for instance, food products sold in Australia might be _________ in the USA, China, Finland and _________of other countries. At the same time, _________ and takeovers mean that governments are actually losing power to major global _________. We can probably all think of companies that _________ a great deal of influence, which may be good for consumers.
And many sufferers don’t know the cause or the _________ to their problem. The majority of our patients at the clinic _________
to be women. They are especially _________ because of pregnancy but also because of osteoporosis, which I personally believe to be the major cause of problems for women. I have many women patients who say they have completely given up exercise because the pain makes them so _________. But of course that starts up a _________circle.
The _________that you could create anything at all has major _________for our health. It means that we’ll _________be able to _________anything. This would have a phenomenal effect on our society. In time it could even lead to the _________ of famine through the introduction of machines that produce food to feed the hungry.
What she was interested in was marine _________ things like _________. And she found three places in the oceans which were hotspots, and what these had in common was that these hotspots were all located at _________ between ocean currents, and this seems to be the sort of place that has lots of the plankton that some of these _________ feed on. So now people who want to protect the species that are _________need to get as much information as possible. For example, there’s an international project called the Census of Marine Life.
The walls are made of several _________of honey-colored wood, all sourced from local _________trees. In order to improve the acoustic properties of the _________and to amplify the sound, they are not straight they are ________. The acoustics are also _________ according to the size of orchestra and the type of music being played.
Another team of _________researchers looked at how cell phones were used in Uganda, in Africa. They found that people who didn’t have their own phones could pay to use the phones of local _________. Because these customers paid in _________
for their calls, they were _________ to know how much time they’d spent on the call so far. So the phone company designed phones for use globally with this added _________ .
For millions of years, carbon dioxide levels in the _________ have been regulated, in part, by a natural _________ between plants and microbes - tiny organisms in the soil. Plants absorb CO2 from the air and _________ it into sugars and other carbon-based substances. While a _________ of these carbon products remain in the plant, some transfer from the roots to _________
and soil microbes, which store the carbon in the soil.
The other teams tried to ________ on building the structure, and ___________ into confusion, with everyone getting in each other’s way. Our team leader solved the challenge_______ . She simply asked everyone in the team to move a piece a few centimeters, to _____________ with the rule, and then let the person in the team with an __________for puzzles like this build it alone.
As with all human behavior, there are __________ reasons for it. But often it’s caused by someone who feels the need to show their __________ over someone else, in order to feel that they aren’t at the lowest level in ____________or a group of people. In some cases one person simply dislikes the other, on the basis that the personality of one is in some way ____________ with that of the other person.
But the problem is that the amount of mercury in the environment’s increasing. The main reason for this is the power _________ used to produce electricity. The main source of energy that most of them use is still __________ , and when it’s burned it ___________ mercury into the atmosphere. Some of this gets deposited into lakes and rivers, and if it’s ___________ by a fish it’s not excreted, it stays in the fish’s body and it enters the food ____________. So it’s been known for some time that birds which eat fish may be affected, but what wasn’t known until quite recently is that those that eat _____________ can also be affected.
We don’t have any databases on this sort of information. As well as that, these records of sound levels take no account of the fact that people vary in their _________of noise-so someone like me with years of working in __________ might be very different from you in that regard. But anyway, even though these noise maps are fairly ________ they’ve been useful in providing information and raising _________that noise matters, we need to deal with it and so it’s a political matter. And that’s important-we need rules and regulations because noise can cause all sort of problems.Those of you who are city-_________ know that things go on 24 hours a day.
Using the Internet has become a _______ part of everyday life for many people. They use it to book airline tickets, or to _________ news about world events, or to follow the __________of their favorite football club. Millions of people across the world belong to social ________groups where they keep in touch with their friends and, if they live away from them, their family. In my opinion, these are all good ways to use the Internet.
One of the drawbacks of staying with the same organization is that the person may get stuck doing the same job year after year. In some cases, this can lead to _________ and disillusionment. Moving from one organization to another can be a __________ decision in order to have variety and _________a range of skills and experience. The person may be incredibly ________in a range of fields by working in different organizations.
There are more than 160 known species of chameleons. The main _________is in Africa and Madagascar, and other __________ regions, although some species are also found in parts of southern Europe and Asia. There are introduced ___________ in Hawaii and probably in California and Florida too. New species are still discovered quite __________. Dr. Andrew Marshall, a conservationist from York University, was surveying monkeys in Tanzania, when he stumbled across a twig _________in the Magombrea forest which, frightened, coughed up a chameleon and fled. Though a colleague ___________ him not to touch it because of the risk from venom, Marshall suspected it might be a new species.
Um, I’m responsible for student __________ to the college and I use a computer system to help process student enrollments and to do the ________. But it really doesn’t suit the way we work these days. It’s over ten years old and although it was fine when it was first _____________, it is just not good enough now. 20 years ago, the college was quite small and we didn’t have the number of students and ___________that we have now. There’s a lot more data now and it sometimes seems the system has ___________but, in fact, it just takes ages to go from one _________-to the next.
An Egyptian narrative of about 1080 BC, the Story of Wen-Amen, provides an __________ into the scale of their trading activity. One of the _____________ is Wereket-EI, a Phoenician merchant living at Tanis in Egypt’s Nile delta. As many as 50 ships carry out his business, plying back and forth between the Nile and the Phoenician port of Sidon. The most ___________ period for Phoenicia was the 10th century BC, when the _______region was stable.
Language often seems so _________ drafted that one can hardly imagine it as anything other than the perfected handiwork of a master _________. How else could this instrument make so much out of barely three dozen measly morsels of sound? In themselves, these configurations of _________ – p, f, b, v, t, d, k, g, sh, a, e and so on – amount to nothing more than a few haphazard spits and splutters, random noises with no __________, no ability to express, no power to.
To biomedical researchers all over the world, twins offer a ___________ opportunity to untangle the influence of genes and environment – of nature and __________. Because identical twins come from a single egg that splits into two, they share virtually the same genetic _______. Any differences between them – one twin having younger looking skin, for example – must be due to environmental __________ such as less time spent in the sun.
Demand for this exotic fabric eventually created the ___________trade route now known as the Silk Road, taking silk westward and bringing gold, silver and ____________to the East. It was named the Silk Road after its most precious ___________, which was considered to be worth more than gold. The Silk Road stretched over 6,000 ____________ from Eastern China to the Mediterranean Sea, following the Great Wall of China, climbing the Pamir mountain ___________, crossing modern-day Afghanistan and going on to the Middle East, with a major trading market in Damascus.
Now, the emergence of ___________ medicine marked a transition, a transformation, from something that had preceded it, and that I hope won’t be confusing. But from the middle of the eighteenth century, more or less, until the closing decade of the nineteenth century, there had been an older tradition that can be ____________ under the label of "diseases of the tropics." And there were a couple of classic statements of this older tradition. One was a work, an important work, by James Lind, an eighteenth century __________, who wrote "An Essay on Diseases Incidental to Europeans in Hot Climates," and this was built on the experience of Europeans in the West Indies. And then there was another work by James Johnson called "The Influence of Tropical Climates on European ___________," built on the experience of Europeans in India.
In 1962, an English political scientist and __________by the name of Bernard Crick wrote a short and very polemical and __________ little book called In Defense of Politics, and by politics Crick meant a distinctive type of human activity where _________ of interests among groups are adjudicated by discussion, persuasion and debate rather than by force or by __________ .
The next topic is going to be black holes, and this is a similar situation. Fifteen, twenty years ago black holes were sort of poised ____________ on the boundary between theoretical physics and science fiction. A boundary that is more _________ than you might believe. But again, in the past fifteen years or so this has been converted into a standard topic in observational __________ .There are dozens, probably hundreds of objects we can point to in the sky and say, "yes those things are black holes." And so now, the current topic of research is do these things that we are pretty sure are black holes actually behave in the _____________ bizarre, science-fiction manner that the theoretical physicists have been talking about for the past thirty or forty years. So, to what extent are these very exotic behaviors actually __________ in real life?
In Italy, some of these cities were able to gain control of the __________country and to become city states, resembling those of the ancient Greeks. Their ___________ was assisted by the continuing struggle between Popes and Emperors, between church and state, again, a thoroughly __________ Western experience. In these states, the modern world began to take form. Although the people were mainly Christians, their life and outlook became increasingly _____. Here, and not only in Italy but in other cities north of the Alps, arose a worldview that celebrated the greatness and dignity of mankind, which was a very sharp turning away from the ________ Western tradition that put God and life in the hereafter at the center of everything.
In this method, a laser is used to create a line of ionization by removing electrons from _________. This laser is then directed at storm clouds in order to control _________charges, a method which is less dangerous than using _______ . As protection for the lasers, the beams are _________firstly at mirrors.
How to look after all these elderly ____________ is a different problem. Governments around the world are already ________ to support growing numbers of retired people who depend on a shrinking working population. Eighteen OECD countries have ___________ pension ages. At the same time, workers are being asked to _________ deeper into their own __________. None of this is enough.
As yet, the new _________is incomplete. So far, the researchers have only ____________the effects caused by one property of matter falling into a black hole, its electric charge. They have not shown the effect of its mass, which would also be important. Their_______ therefore account only for part of the information that is lost. But they have established a ____________ that may lead to a full accounting of the matter. That would let physicists sleep easy in their beds, in the knowledge that reality is once again _________, at least ___________, how they think it ought to.
Migrant children who do attend schools in cities usually get a ____________education than their city-born _____________State schools that accept migrant pupils often operate what Pei-chia Lan of National Taiwan University refers to as ‘apartheid school models’. In these, migrant children are taught __________from urban ones in the same school, and are even kept ___________ from them in the playground.
Political ____________ and thinkers across a broad array of ideologies, from libertarians to __________liberals to the hard left, are intrigued, or even keen. The Cato Institute, an American think-tank which spends much of its time calling for a smaller state, published a sympathetic____________ of the policy in 2015. It feels that, though it might prefer a world with no __________ redistribution, a basic income is the simplest.
In Mexico and Brazil, they have developed Conditional Cash Transfer ____________. They are what they say on the tin. Cash is given to women of low income, but there are conditions: children have to be taken to ___________and health clinics, older children have to remain in school. In Brazil, the result has been great reductions in poverty and __________, improvements in school attendance, __________ of girls, and health improvements. Questions have been raised as to whether the ______________ is needed.
Spring is in the air. And so are those dang __________, hungry for a blood meal. The victim can wind up with a bunch of bites, red and itchy. So what drugs can quench that itch? Maybe none, according to a study in the Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin. Researchers reviewed the __________on a variety of treatments. Topical antihistamines? Generally not recommended. They're only marginally effective and should not be used for longer than three days. Oral analgesics like ibuprofen are sometimes recommended, but the scientists say there's no evidence supporting that. Topical anaesthetics such as lidocaine are only marginally effective and can sensitize the skin -- meaning the itching could __________get worse. And common topical steroids like hydrocortisone? The problem here is that they're not _________to be used on broken skin. And if you've been scratching, that skin may already be broken. The authors recommend a simple approach: clean the area, and use a cold pack to tamp down inflammation and numb the nerves. If you have not __________the skin, try the steroid cream. But your best approach may be ice.
It's tough to pick a _______face out of a crowd -- but focusing on a known voice in a noisy room is easy. And a new study scanned volunteers ' brains to look at how we solve the so called cocktail party problem. The work is in the __________Nature. Researchers recorded the activity of the subject's cerebral cortexes while playing them sentences spoken by different voices. First, the subjects listened to individual sentences and reported key __________of each one. Then, they heard two different sentences played at the same time, but had to listen to and recall details from only one voice. Each voice drew a particular response from the auditory cortex. And even with an extra sentence playing ________, researchers saw that the cortex responded specifically to the voice that the subject was focusing on. This finding indicates that our brains process sound based not only on the audio input they ___________, but also on our listening goals. And it could lead to speech recognition systems that are __________in crowds -- even at a cocktail party.