Reading-Fill in the blanks

 

Read the given text and choose words from the box to fill the gaps. Answers are provided at the bottom of the page.

 

1) One of the most ___________ of psychologists, Clark Hull , _________ that the essence of reasoning lies in the putting together of two ‘behaviour segments’ in some ________ way, never actually performed before, so as to reach a goal. Two followers of Clark Hull, Howard and Tracey Kendler, __________ a test for children that was explicitly based on Clark Hull’s principles. The children were given the task of learning to _________ a machine so as to get a toy. In order to succeed they had to go through a two-stage sequence.

advised                        claimed                        reported           desire          devised                        eminent                operate            novel

 

 

2) For A Hong Kong based NGO _________ by regulators, former central bankers and government officials on Wednesday announced an _________to fight money laundering and regulate the fast growing financial technology space across Asia. The heavyweight meeting, which had government representatives from countries including China, the Philippines, Thailand and Cambodia, aimed to _________an information exchange platform as rapidly evolving technology makes it harder to regulate illicit money flows. China has _______to curb capital outflows for years. The country’s special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau have been key places where capital has seeped out from.

 provide         manage                        decreased          battled          increased         greater            improvements             alliance

 

 

 

3) The recipe for making any creature is written in its DNA. So last November, when geneticists published the near-complete DNA sequence of the long-extinct woolly mammoth, there was much speculation about whether we could bring this behemoth back to life. Creating a living, breathing creature from a genome sequence that exists only in a computer's memory is not possible right now. But someone someday is sure to try it,____________ Stephan Schuster, a ___________biologist at Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and a__________ force behind the mammoth genome project.

predicts           molecular         surveying         driving

4) Great engineers have a passion to improve life; a burning conviction that they can make life better for everyone. Engineers need to have a talent for invention and innovation, but what ________ them is the conviction that they can find a better way to do things; a cheaper and more efficient solution to the problems of human existence on this planet of __________ resources that we call Earth.

Many of us __________ a lot of time complaining about the difficulties and problems of life. it is easy to find fault with things that make daily life arduous. For an engineer, these difficulties can be opportunities;. How can this be made to work better? How can________ that process be made more efficient? How can be made more cheaply, more accurately and more fit-for-purpose? Great engineers are convinced that everything can be ____________ . Instead of complaining, they think of ways to make things better.

drives       components                        limited             modified                     improved         spend

 

5) People modify cultural ideas in their minds, and sometimes they pass on the modified versions. Inevitably, there are unintentional modifications as well, partly because of straightforward error, and partly because inexplicit ideas are hard to ________ accurately: there is no way to download them directly from one brain to another like computer programs. Even native speakers of a language will not give identical definitions of every word. So can be only rarely, if _______ , that two people hold precisely the same cultural idea in their minds. That is why, when the founder of a political or philosophical movement or a religion dies, or _________ , schisms typically happen. The movement's most devoted followers are often shocked to ________ that they disagree about what its doctrines —really are.

change ever                 convey             discover           even before

 

6)The environmental impact of the glob a textile; e industry is hard to overstate. One-third of the water used worldwide is spent fashioning fabrics. For every ton of cloth PRODUCED, 200 tons of water is polluted with chemicals and heavy metals. An estimated 1 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity powers the factories that card and comb, spin and weave, and cut and stitch material s into everything from T-shirts to towels, ________ behind mountains of solid waste and a massive carbon footprint.

'Where the industry is today is not really sustainable for the long term," says Shreyaskar Chaudhary, chief executive of Pratibha Syntex, a textile manufacturer based outside Indore, India.

With something of an 'if you build it, they will come ________' , Mr. Chaudhary has steered Pratibha TOWARD the leading edge of eco-friendly textile production.Under his direction, Pratibha began making clothes with organic cotton in 1999. Initially the company couldn't find enough organic farms growing cotton in central India________ its factories. To meet production demands, Chaudhary's team had to convince conventions cotton farmers to change their growing methods. Pratibha provided seeds, cultivation instruction, and a guarantee of fair-trade prices for _________ crops. Today, Pratibha has a network of 28.000 organic cotton growers across the central states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra. and Orissa.

their                 to supply         with     leaving             attitude

 

7) In The Origin of Species, Darwin provided abundant evidence that life on Earth has evolved over tender and he proposed natural selection as the primary mechanism for that change. He observed that individuals_________ in their inherited traits and that selection acts on such differences, leading to_______ change. Although Darwin realized that variation in heritable traits 5s a prerequisite for__________ , he did not know precisely how organisms pass heritable traits to their offspring. Just a few years after Darwin published The Origin of Species, Gregor Mendel wrote a groundbreaking paper on inheritance in pea plants. _________ that paper, Mendel proposed a model of inheritance in which organisms transmit discrete heritable units (now called genes) to their offspring. Although Darwin did not know about genes, Mendel’s paper set the stage __________understanding the genetic differences on which evolution is based.

Evolutionary               for                   in                     differ               on        evolution

8) What is the significance of instinct in business? Does a reliable gut feeling separate winners from losers? And is it the most valuable emotional tool any entrepreneur can possess? My observations of successful company owners lead me to believe that a highly analytical attitude can be a drawback. At critics; junctures in commercial life, risk-taking is more an __________of faith than a carefully balanced choice. Frequently, such moments require ___________and absolute conviction above all else. There is simply no time to wait for all the facts, or room. for doubt. A computer program cannot tell you how to invent and launch a new_______ . That journey involves too many unknowns, too much luck - and too much sheer intuition, rather than the infallible _________ that machines deliver so well. As Chekhov said: “An artist's flair is sometimes worth a scientist's brains" - entrepreneurs need right-brain thinking. When I have been _____________considering whether to buy a company and what price to offer, I have been too often by reams of due diligence from the accountants and lawyers. Usually it pays to stand back from such mountains of gray data and weigh up the really important issues - and decide how you feel about the opportunity.

act                  distress            blinded                        logic                decisiveness                                    product

9)Paris is very old—there has been a settlement there for at least 6000 years and its shape has been determined in part by the River Seine, and in part by the edicts of France's rulers. But the great boulevards we admire today are relatively new, and were constructed to prevent any more barricades __________ by the rebellious population; that work was carried out in the middle 19th century. The earlier Paris had been __________  a maze of narrow streets and alleyways. But you can imagine that the work was not only highly expensive, but caused great distress among the half a million or so residents whose houses were __________ razed, and whose neighborhoods disappeared. What is done cannot usually be undone, especially when buildings are torn ____________.

simply             in part              being created               original                        down

 

10) Over the last ten thousand years there seem to have been two separate and conflicting building sentiments throughout the history of towns and cities. ________is the desire to start again, for a variety of reasons: an earthquake or a tidal wave may have demolished the settlement, or fire destroyed it, or the new city ___________ a new political beginning. The other can be likened to the effect of a magnet: established settlements attract people, who ____________  come whether or not there is any planning for their arrival. The clash between these two sentiments is evident in every established city until its development has been almost completely accidental or is lost m history. Incidentally, many settlements have been planned from, the beginning but, for a variety of reasons, no settlement followed the plan. A good example is Currowan on the Clyde River in New South Wales, which ______________ in the second half of the 19th century, in expectation that people would come to establish agriculture and a small port. But no one came. Most country towns in New South Wales started with an original survey, whose grid lines are still there today in the pattern of the original streets.

marks              was surveyed                                tend to                                   one                            developed

11) Of the more than 1,000 bat species worldwide, 22 are __________ to North America. And while there are no pollinator bats in our area: gardeners should _________those that do live here, because they're insectivorous. These bats ________moths, beetles and mosquitoes, and can eat up to 500 mosquito-sized insects per hour. They also protect gardens and crops from such PESTS as cucumber beetles, cutworms and leafhoppers.

   champion                 native                          complete                      consume          advantage

                                           

12) Three degrees does not sound like much but it___________ a rise in temperature compatible with the global heating that occurred between the last ice age, some 15,000 years ago, and the warmth of the eighteenth century. When Earth was cold, giant glaciers sometimes extended from the polar-regions as far south as St Louis in the US and the Alps in Europe. Later this century when it is three degree hotter glaciers everywhere will be melting in a climate of often ___________  heat and drought. Punctuated with storms and floods. The ______________for humanity could be truly horrific; if we fail: to act swiftly, the full impact of global heating could cull us along with vast populations of the plant and animals with whom we share Earth. In a worst case scenario, there might - in the 22nd century - be only a remnant of humanity eking out a __________ existence in the polar-regions and the few remaining oases left on a hot and arid Earth.

              consequences             diminished      unbearable       represents        manage           

 

 

 

13) Charles Darwin knew intuitively that tropical forests were places of _______ intricacy and energy. He and his cohort of scientific naturalists were by the beauty of the Neotropics, where __________ they collected tens of thousands of ________ new to science. But they couldn't have guessed at the complete contents of the ram forest, and they had no idea of its_________ to humankind.

developed                   species             value                            tremendous                 awed

14)       Good customer service relates to the service you and your employees provide before, during and after a purchase. For example, it's how you _________ with your customers. Improving your customer service skills can lead to greater customer satisfaction and a more enjoyable experience for them. No matter the size of your business good customer service needs be at the heart of your business model if you wish to be successful. It is important to provide good customer service; to all types of customers, including _________, new and existing customers.

Although it can take extra resources, time and money, good customer service leads to customer satisfaction which can generate positive ___________ for your business, keep your customers happy and encourage them to purchase from your business again. Good customer service can help your business grow and prosper.

  potential                    simple              word-of-mouth           interact                        react

 

15) RUDMAN charts the evolution of mathematics from early hunter-gatherer cultures to the civilisations of ancient Egypt and Babylon. He also looks at how a poor understanding of maths has led historians to false conclusions about the mathematical ___________of early societies. Rudman’s final observation – that ancient Greece enjoyed _________ progress in the subject ___________ failing to teach it at school – leads to a radical punch line: mathematics could be better learned after we ________school. It is an underdeveloped yet intriguing argument.

leave                while               furnished         sophistication              unrivalled       

 

16)  The amount of sleep you need depends on many_________ , especially your age. Newborns sleep between 16 and 18 hours a day and preschool children should sleep between 10 and 12 hours. Older children and teens need at least nine hours to be we rested. For most adults, seven to eight hours a night appears to the best amount of sleep. However, for some people, 'enough sleep' may be as few as five hours or as many as 10 hours of sleep.

As you get older, your sleeping________ change. Older adults tend to sleep more lightly and awaken more frequently in the night than younger adults. This can have many causes including medical conditions and medications used to treat them. But there's no evidence that older adults need less sleep than younger adults.

Getting enough sleep is important to your health because it boosts your system, which makes your _______ body better able to fight disease. Sleep is necessary for your nervous system to work properly. Too little sleep makes you drowsy and unable to concentrate. It also impairs memory and physical performance.

So how many hours of sleep are enough for you? Experts say that if you feel drowsy during the day — even during boring activities — you are not getting enough sleep. Also, quality of sleep is just as IMPORTANT as quantity. People whose sleep is frequently interrupted or cut short are not getting quality sleep.If you experience frequent daytime sleepiness, even after increasing the amount of quality sleep you get, talk to your doctor. He or she may be able to _________ the cause of sleep problems and offer advice on how to get a better night’s sleep.

immune                       identify                       patterns           factors             trend

 

 

17) The Dag Hammarskjold Library at United Nations Headquarters in New York is a library designated to facilitate the work of the United Nations and focuses mainly on the needs of the UN Secretariat and diplomatic missions. Anyone with a valid United Nations Headquarters grounds __________ , including specialized agencies, accredited media and NGO staff, is able to visit the library. Due to __________ constraints in place at the United Nations Headquarters complex, the library is not open to the general _________ .

trip                   security            connecting                   pass                 public

 

18)  Stars and the material between them are almost always found in gigantic _______systems ca ed galaxies. Our own galaxy, the Milky Way system, happens to be one of the two largest systems in the local group of two dozen or so galaxies. The other is the Andromeda galaxy; it  __________ more than one hundred thousand light- years from one end to the other, and it is__________ about two million light-years distant from us.

steller               land                 located                        renovated                    stretches

 

19)  As long as a human ________ a crime scene, there will be traces of DNA. DNA can help the police to ________ an individual to crack a case. An institute in London can help ____________DNA and be used to match with the samples taken from the crime scenes.

prove               identify           classify            entered                        reserve

 

 

 

20) Music is an important part of our lives. We connect and interact with it daily and use it as a way of projecting our self-identities to the people around us. The music we enjoy – whether it’s country or classical, rock n’ roll or rap ________ –  who we are. But where did music, at its core, first come from? It’s a puzzling question that may not have a definitive answer. One _________ researcher, however, has proposed that the key to understanding the origin of music is nestled snugly in the loving bond between mother and child.

In a lecture at the University of Melbourne, Richard Parncutt, an Australian-born professor of systematic musicology, endorsed the idea that music originally spawned from ‘mothers’ – the playful voices mothers___________ when speaking to infants and toddlers.As the theory goes, increased human brain sizes caused by evolutionary changes occurring between one and 2,000,000 years ago resulted in earlier births, more fragile infants and a critical need for stronger relationships between mothers and their newborn babies.According to Parncutt, who is based at the University of Graz in Austria, ‘motherese’ arose as a way to strengthen this maternal bond and to help________ an infant’s survival.

              leading                       reflects                        provides                      ensure              convey

21) Good sense appears to have___________  at last. With a fresh set of draft rules to replace last year’s poorly conceived ones, the Centre has sought to withdraw the ban on sale of cattle for in animal markets. The draft rules are now open for comments and suggestions.
When the Union Ministry for Environment, Forests and Climate Change notified the rules under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act on May 23, 2017, there was _________  that in the name of preventing cruelty to animals and regulating livestock markets the government was surreptitiously throttling the cattle trade and furthering the BJP’s cow protection agenda. The rules were criticized for restricting legitimate animal trade and interfering with _______  habits.

governed  dietary, interest, prevailed, concern


22) The Roman people had at first been inclined to regard the French Revolution with either indifference or derision. But as the months went by and who remained in the city were less and less hopeful of an early return home, the mood of the Romans became increasingly towards the ‘assassins of Paris’. The nationalization of Church property in France, the of papal territories, the ________ of contributions and the ________ of tourists and pilgrims all contributed to an exacerbation of this.

paucity, shortage, dwindling, decreasing

 

23)Traditionally, mass-communications research has conceptualized the process of communication in terms of a circulation circuit or loop. This ________ has been criticized for its linearity - sender/message/receiver - for its concentration on the level of message exchange and for the absence of a structured conception of the different moments as a complex structure of relations.
But it is also possible ________ to think of this process in terms of a structure produced and sustained through the articulation of linked ________distinctive moments - production, circulation, distribution/consumption, reproduction. This would be to think of the process as a 'complex structure in dominance', sustained through the articulation of connected practices, each of which, however, retains its distinctiveness and has its own ________  modality, its own forms and conditions of existence.

particular, specific, useful, model, meaningful, but

 


24) London’s National Portrait Gallery is currently celebrating the fifty year _________ of photographer Sandra Lousada. The twenty one portraits on display key ________ in literature, film and fashion from the early 1960s. Subsequent to the acquisition of forty portraits by Lousada, the display at The National Portrait Gallery highlights shots taken between 1960 and 1964, many of which feature in Lousada’s book Public Faces Private Places (2008).

profession, numbers, figures, career

 

25) Giant exoplanets, like the so-called 'hot Jupiters' that are similar in ________ to the solar system’s biggest planet and orbit very close to their host stars, are excellent targets for ______  in their search for extrasolar worlds. The size and proximity of these planets is easy to _______  as they create a large decrease in brightness when passing in front of their parent stars.

detect, find, astronomers, features, characteristics

26) There are many different ways to help other people. Perhaps the most common of these involves giving others__________  help. In our society, there are many individuals who spontaneously help others in this way. Additionally, there are others who belong to organizations which have been set up to provide help to specific groups, such as the elderly, the disabled, and those with serious physical or ___________ health problems. Most importantly, there are many  ___________such as nursing, occupational therapy and social work, which involve professionals who are trained to provide or organize practical help for others.___________  helping other people in a practical way, many volunteer and professional helpers also make use of some counseling. These skills can be very useful in enabling people to feel better as described in this book and our book, Counseling Skills in Everyday Life. However, it needs to be _____________ that just being able to make use of some counseling skills does not qualify a person as counselor.

occupations    which        while        recognized    mental         Spiritual         practical        employment

 


27) Event management is particularly challenging from an operational viewpoint. In many cases, events are staged on sites where everything has been set up over a 24-hour period, with all elements carefully __________ . In contrast, many events are years in the planning: large convention bids are often won five years before the event is held. For the very _________ bidding process, budgets need to be developed and prices quoted, requiring a good understanding of market, economic and political trends, as well as consumer choices. This long-term view is the basis of strategic management, which is covered in Part 1, and focuses on the event concept, feasibility of the event, legal compliance and financial management. Marketing is a critical _________  factor and other important topic of this first section, many events (sporting, cultural and arts) involving long- term sponsorship _________ with key industry players. Relationship building is particularly __________ since there are so many stakeholders involved in events, including government agencies at many levels. Part 1 will look at all these aspects, including strategic risk, before moving on to the second part where operational planning and implementation will be covered in detail.

challenging    opposing        arrangement    synchronized      competitive         achivement

 

 


28) E-learning is the new way forward. We believe __________ in e-learning. Our innovative approach open up new _________  for busy professionals that simply did not previously exist the __________ to combine a prestigious Master’s program with a demanding professional and personal _________ . Our small virtual classrooms facilitate intensive ___________ and collaboration among professionals from all over the world.

existence        opportunities    interaction        occasion         life     passionately          chance

 


29) One of the most popular forms of theatre is musical. Combining drama, dance, and music, the musical has been around for over a century, and in that time has kept pace with changing _________ and socials conditions, as well as _________  in theatre technology. Many modern musical are known for their spectacular _________ , lighting and other effects.

hobbies        tastes        increases        advances        sets


30) Well in 2004 we integrated ticketing in South East Queensland, so we _________ a paper ticket that allowed you to travel across all the three________  in South East Queensland, so bus, train and __________ and the second stage of integrated ticketing is the introduction of a Smart Card, and the Smart Card will enable people to _________  value so to put value on the card, and then to use the card for ____________ around the system.


travelling        store        brought        ferry         maintain            modes            introduced

 

 

 

31)While accounting focuses on the day-to-day management of financial _________ and records across the business world, finance uses this same information to project future growth and to _________ expenditure in order to strategize company finances. By studying this major you get to have a better insight on the market, with the right __________ and skills acquired you should be able then when you graduate to advise others in making strong investments. This major will help you gain responsibility of predicting and ___________ the potential for profit and growth, assessing monetary resources, utilizing accounting statistics and reports, and also looking externally for future funding options.

records        information    investigate        reports        analyze          knowledge            analyzing


32) So some of the time an intellectual challenge is to assimilate how similar we can be to other species. In other cases that challenge is to appreciate how, though human psychology_______  that of other species, we use the psychology in novel ways. We activate the classical psychology of vigilance while watching a scary movie. We active a ________ when thinking about morality. We secrete hormones related to nurturing and social bonding, but in______  to an adorable baby Panda. And this_________  to aggression - we use the same muscle as does a male chimp attacking a sexual competitor, but we use them to harm someone because of their ideology.

response      practitioner   conduct   stress response       recorded    resembles        certainly applies        guide    according       


33) Hippocrates allowed observation, rationality and his own genuine respect for his patients to guide his practice (Garrison 94). Using the scientific method, he carefully_______  his patient’s symptoms and _________ to treatments, and used the data _________ to evaluate and prescribe the most successful regimens. His prestige as a great medical ________, educator, and author helped spread these ideals of _________ medicine throughout the ancient world.

rational     recorded      gathered        responses        practitioner        reactions                lead

 

34) At the end of the last ice age, scientists believe that the melting ice disrupted the ocean currents in the North Atlantic and________  a drop in temperature of almost  5 degrees. Even _________ the rest of the planet was warming up, the North Atlantic region remained in a cold period for almost 1300 years. The same thing happened _________ 8000 years ago, when the cooling lasted about a hundred years, and it  _________ happen again today.

caused        roughly        though        around        could            produced

 

35) A Massey ecologist has teamed up with a leading wildlife photographer to produce the definitive book on New Zealand’s national bird, the kiwi. Kiwi: A Natural History was written by Dr Isabel Castro and ___________ photographs by Rod Morris. Dr Castro has been working with kiwi _________ 1999, with a focus on their behavior. “I’ve specifically been looking at the sense of smell that kiwi uses when foraging,_________  in their interactions with their environment and other kiwi,” she says. The book covers all aspects of kiwi, from their evolution, prehistory and closest relatives to their feeding and breeding behavior and current conservation issues, making this the perfect_________  for anyone with an interest in these fascinating birds. The book is the second title in a new _________ on New Zealand’s wildlife, targeted at a family readership.

characters        features        since        but also         sequences        introduction    series

 

 

 

36) At the height of summer the Antarctic, tourist ships move gently around the coast. Even 30 years ago such sights would have been unthinkable, but to day people are willing to pay large sums of money to see the last real wilderness in the world. In the Arctic, careless human exploitation ___________ has damaged the fragile ecosystem. Today concerned governments are trying to find ways to develop the region__________  caring for the very special natural environment.__________ the Antarctic is less accessible then the Arctic, it is still largely undamaged by human, although holes in the Ozone Layer above the Antarctic____________ discovered. Many people believe that one way to preserve the area is to make the whole region into a World Park, with every form of exploitation internationally banned.

while    then    whereas    because    have already    in the past


37)Daniel Harris, a scholar of consumption and style, has observed that until photography finally __________ illustration as the “primary means of advertising clothing” in the 1950s, glamour ___________ less in the face of the drawing, which was by necessity schematic and generalized, than in the sketch’s attitude, posture, and gestures, especially in the strangely dainty positions of the hands. Glamour once resided so emphatically in the stance of the model that the faces in the illustrations cannot really be said to have________  at all, but angles or tilts.

inhered        statements        expressions    adhered        supplanted


38) With about one and a half billion non-native speakers, English has become the world's own language. Such ________ has its downside, of course. There are now about 6,800 languages left in the world, compared with perhaps________  that number back at the dawn of agriculture. Thanks in _______ to the rise of über-languages, most importantly English, the remaining languages are now dying at the ________ of about one a fortnight. Want to learn Busuu, anyone? Then you'd better head to Cameroon fast, before one of the language's last eight speakers kicks the bucket (as the Busuu-nese presumably doesn’t say).

separate    rate    advantage        part        dominance        twice


39)One of the most important things to remember is that "classic" does not necessarily translate to "favorite" or "bestselling". Literature is instead considered classic when it has stood the test of time; and it stands the test of time when the artistic quality it expresses – be it an________  of life, truth, beauty, or anything about the_________  human condition – continues to be relevant, and continues to inspire emotional responses, no matter the period in which the work was written.
Indeed, classic literature is considered as such _________ of book sales or public popularity. That said, classic literature usually merits lasting recognition – from critics and other people in a position to __________ such decisions – and has a universal appeal. And, while effective use of language – as well as technical excellence – is a must, not everything that is well-written or is characterized by technical achievement or critical acclaim will automatically be considered a classic. Conversely, works that have not been acknowledged or received positively by the writer's contemporaries or critics can still be considered as classics.

impress    regardless        influence        expression    universal         manifestation

40) Absence from work is a costly and________  problem for any organization. The cost of absenteeism in Australia has been put at 1.8 million hours per day or $1400 million annually. The study reported here was ________ in the Prince William Hospital in Brisbane, Australia, where, prior to this time, few active steps HAD been taken to measure, understand or manage the ______ of absenteeism.

conducted        accident         led        disruptive        occurrence

41) It is difficult to tell precisely when the Breton language was born. As early as the VIth century the new country was_________ and known as "Lesser Britain", but for many centuries its language _________close to the one of Great Britain - very close even to the dialect spoken in the South West. The VIIIth century is the milestone where Breton, Cornish and Welsh are________ as different languages.

established    believed        considered    remained        built


42) Managing performance is about getting people into action so that they achieve planned and agreed results. It focuses on what has to be done, how it should be done and what IS to be achieved. But it is equally concerned with_______ people - helping them to learn - and providing them with the support they need to do well, now and in the future. The framework for performance management is provided by the performance agreement, ________is the outcome of performance planning. The agreement provides the basis for managing performance throughout the year and for _________improvement and development activities. It is used as a reference point when reviewing performance and the achievement of improvement and development plans.

which    guiding    developing    conducting    that

43) Some of the most basic organisms are smarter than we thought. Rather than moving about randomly, amoebas and plankton employ sophisticated_________ to look for food and might travel in a way that optimizes their foraging. Biophysicists have long tried to explain how creatures of all sizes search for food. However, single-celled organisms such as bacteria seem to move in no particular direction in their search. To investigate, Liang Li and Edward Cox at Princeton University studied the movements of amoebas (Dictyostelium) in a Petri dish, recording the paths travelled by 12 amoebas, including every turn and movement straight ahead, for 8 to 10 hours per amoeba. Immediately after an amoeba turned right, it was twice as likely to turn left as right again, and vice versa, they told a meeting of the American Physical Society meeting in Denver, Colorado, last week. This suggests that the cells have a________ , being able to remember the last direction they had just turned in, says Robert Austin, a biophysicist at Princeton who was not involved in the study.
    
tactics    recollection    memory        strategies

44) Spending too much time in the concrete jungle is bad for city _______’ health and could have potentially catastrophic_________ for the environment, conservation biologist Richard Fuller will argue during a seminar at the University of Canberra ________. Dr Fuller, lecturer in biodiversity and conservation at the University of Queensland and CSIRO, will ________the fact that although there’s evidence that the well-being of humans increases with exposure to our surrounding biodiversity, the ________for people to experience nature are declining rapidly in the modern world.

opportunities       dwellers    consequences    today     disclosure        effects         explore

 

 

45)One distinguishing feature of the business is its economic character. In the world of business, we interact with each other not as family members, friends, or neighbors, but as ______ and sellers, employers and employees, and the like. Trading, for example, is often accompanied by _________bargaining, in which both sides conceal their full hand and perhaps ______in some bluffing. And a _________salesperson is_________  in the art of arousing a customer’s attention (sometimes by a bit of puffery) to _______ the sale. Still, there is an “ethics of trading” that prohibits the use of false or deceptive claims and tricks such as “bait-and-switch” advertising. Buyers buy hard soft well-versed well-viewed clinch clench.

well-versed    difficulty    clinch    buyers    hard     employ    engage         skilled


46)Since the beginning of the financial crisis, there have been two principal ________for why so many banks made such disastrous decisions. The first is structural. Regulators did not regulate. Institutions failed to function as they should. Rules and guidelines were either_______ or ignored. The second explanation is that Wall Street was ________, that the traders and investors didn’t know enough, that they made extravagant bets without ______the consequences.

accord    incompetent    understanding    inadequate        descriptions    explanations

 

 

 

47)What is music? In one sense, this is an easy________ . Even the least musical among us can recognize pieces of music when we hear them and name a few canonical ________. We know there are different kinds of music and, even if our _______of music is restricted, we know which kinds we like and which kinds we do not.


knowledge    confusion        information    question        examples


48)Talking is not just an activity of the vocal cords; it is a way of connecting with ourselves and__________ that creates a culture of health and _________. Specifically, speaking with healthcare ___________about health worries, and more generally opening up to create more and stronger social ___________, can have many positive benefits.

others        participants    wellbeing        ties    practitioners      chains


49) To_______ how a coffee nap might work, we need to look at how the body_______ caffeine. When you drink a coffee, the caffeine stays in the stomach for a while before moving to the small intestine. It is from here that caffeine is _________and distributed throughout the body. This process, from drinking to absorption, takes 45 minutes. Although caffeine is broken down in the liver, half of it remains in the blood for 4-5 hours after drinking a moderate amount (equivalent to two large cups of brewed coffee). It ________more time to eliminate greater amounts of caffeine from the body.

takes    process        incorporated    absorbed        understand          know


50) Americans approached a record level of generosity last year. Of the $260.28bn given to charity in 2005, 76.5 percent of it came from_______ donors. These people gave across the range of non-profit bodies, from museums to hospitals to religious_______ , with a heavy emphasis on disaster relief after the Asian tsunami and US hurricanes. In total, Americans gave away 2.2 percent of their household income in 2005, slightly above the 40-year______ .

groups        organizations    private        average        individual

51) Critical thinking involves looking at something you may have seen many times and examining it from many different _________and perspectives. It involves going beyond the___________ or beyond “easy” to seek new understanding and rare_________ . It involves looking at common issues with uncommon eyes, known problems with new skepticism, everyday conflicts with probing ___________, and daily challenges with greater attention to detail.

obvious         curiousity        clear    angles        resolutions    solutions

52) Because of the instructional methods, expected class participation and the nature of the courses vary, no fixed number of absences is applicable to all _______ . Each _______is responsible for making clear to the class at the beginning of the _________his or her policies and procedures in regard to class________ and the reasons for them.

tutor    circumstances    semester        instructor         situations        attendance

53) Protestors see globalization in a different light than the Treasury Secretary of the United States. The differences in ___________are so great that one wonders, are the protestors and the policymakers talking about the same __________. Are the visions of those in power clouded by special and particular ___________ ?

vigor        views         opinions           interests           phenomena

54) Professor David Phoenix, the dean of the faculty of science and technology, the return of single-honors chemistry is a matter of___________ and pride. "If you say you're a science faculty, you have to have all the core sciences, and this course will mean we attract a new supply of potential Masters and PhD students in chemistry."
Phoenix is adamant that the new course will teach "solid chemistry", but he thinks that an _________for students will be a teaching approach that differs significantly from __________as an undergraduate. This takes real-life issues as the starting point of lectures and modules, such as how drugs are made or the science behind green issues. Out of this study, he says, students will be exposed to exactly the same core chemistry, unchanged over decades, but they will be doing it in a way that is _________ and more likely to lead to more fundamental learning.

responsibility    more engaging    credibility        attraction        repulsion        his days

55)Since biological systems with signs of __________engineering are unlikely to have arisen from accidents or coincidences, their_________ must come from natural selection, and hence should have ___________useful for survival and reproduction in the environments in which humans evolved.

functions        complex         organization       sophisticated          obligations


56) What can computer science tell us about what biological systems do and how they do it? Can these chemical information-processing functions be________ in digital computing systems? What are the ________of developments in computer science in understanding the nature of causality? Aaron Sloman, author of Computer Revolution in Philosophy_______ into the world of connections between ideas developed in computer science, biology and philosophy, providing new_________ into some fundamental questions about the nature of consciousness and free will.

perceptions    suggestions    implications    replicated        delves        insights        connections


57) He has published over 110 research papers, has coedited a major________ on phototrophic bacteria, and has served as chief editor of the __________Archives of Microbiology. He currently serves on the editorial board of the journal Environmental Microbiology. His nonscientific_________ include tree planting and ________for his dogs and horses. He lives __________a quiet lake about five miles from the SIUC campus with his wife, Nancy, four shelter dogs (Gaino, Snuffy, Pepto, and Merry), and three horses (Springer, Feivel, and Festus).

caring       beside            treatise          interests          journal             concern             near


58) The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine energy expenditure (EE) during a range of active video games (AVGs) and (2) determine whether EE during AVGs is influenced by gaming_________ or fitness. Twenty-six boys (11.4±0.8 years) participated and performed a range of sedentary __________(resting, watching television and sedentary gaming), playing AVGs (Nintendo® Wii Bowling, Boxing, Tennis, and Wii Fit Skiing and Step), walking and running including a _________fitness test. During all activities, oxygen uptake, heart rate and EE were determined. The AVGs resulted in a significantly higher EE compared to rest (63-190%, p≤0.001) and sedentary screen-time activities (56-184%, p≤0.001). No significant differences in EE were found between the most__________ video games and walking. There was no evidence to suggest that gaming experience or aerobic fitness influenced EE when playing AVGs. In conclusion, boys expended more energy during active gaming compared to sedentary activities. Whilst EE during AVG is game-specific, AVGs are not intense enough to contribute towards the 60min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that is currently recommended for children.

active         maximal         large         movements         activities              experience

59)
Number and form are the essence of our world: from the patterns of the stars to the pulses of the market, from the __________ of our hearts to catching a ball or tying our shoelaces. Drawing on science, literature, history and philosophy,and introducing ________ novelties from Alcibiades to Gauss, this ________ book makes the mysteries of math accessible and its rich __________textures brilliantly clear.

patterns    strikes    models    beats    geniuses        inspiring


60)
The ___________observer does not necessarily recognize the_______ in how a teacher, for instance, responds to a thoughtful question from a normally quiet student and how that may be very different from the ‘standard response’ to a commonly inquisitive or _______student. Expert teachers are aware of what they are doing; they monitor and adjust their teaching behaviors to bring out the ________ in their students.

great    casual    craft    talkative        best        skill


61)
Dance has played an important role in may musicals. In some______ dance numbers are included as an excuse to add to the color and spectacle of the show, but dance is more_______ when it forms an integral part of the plot. An early example is Richard Rodgers on Your Toes (1936) in which the story about classical ballet meeting the world of jazz enabled dance to be introduced in a way that_________ , rather than interrupts the drama.

ehances        effective        samples        cases        useful    


62) 
Throughout the 18th century, mathematicians, scientists and philosophers researched, discussed, and published their investigations into how the world worked, while engineers and inventors developed new and successful machines and processes. The latest theories inspired greater invention, and more technology encouraged theoretical scientists to make further discoveries in medicine, biology, mechanics, physics, and chemistry. By 1800, the new machines________ brought revolutionary changes to the workplace, transportation and communications, and eventually to the home. Some of these inventions simply made it easier to produce things on a large scale such as textile machines and foundries,________ produced large quantities of cloth and metal objects quickly and cheaply. But some inventions completely new possibilities such as the first batteries, steamboats, and locomotives. It would take decades for some of these inventions__________ to make a big impact on the world._________ their creation, and the sheer amount of imagination and risk-taking involved, marked the beginning of a modern, global, technologically based economy of the kind that we live in today.

have    which    Yet    that    brought             had

63)
This course provides students with an in-depth understanding of the exciting disciplines of politics and international relations and commerce. Students will learn about the ________of political institutions in countries around the world and explore the complex field of relations between nations. Topics in governance, public policy, public administration, national security, border control and commerce ensure that students receive a _________and current education in the range of issues which are covered under the label of politics and international relations and commerce.
Bachelor of Commerce students __________ in one of the following areas Accounting, Banking & Financial Services, Business Administration, Economics, Financial Planning, Human Resource Management, Information Systems, International Business, Marketing Management, Public Sector Management, or Tourism Management.
Students will undertake four compulsory units and two majors, one in politics and international relations and the other in governance and policy. They will also choose an elective major from a wide choice of options_________ political communication, international studies, international business and national security studies.
In addition to acquiring specialist knowledge and competencies in Politics and International Relations and Commerce, students will graduate with a range of generic skills such as critical thinking, enhanced communication abilities, problem solving __________and capacities to work with others. They will also develop ethically based and socially _________attitudes and behaviors.

responsible     strong        specialize        vigorous        including        broad    working    includes

64) 
Twenty years ago, not so long before B-15 broke off from Antarctica, “we didn’t even know that icebergs made noise,” says Haru Matsumoto, an ocean engineer at NOAA who has studied these sounds. But in the past_______ years, scientists have started to learn to distinguish the eerie, haunting sounds of iceberg life—ice cracking, icebergs grinding against each other, an iceberg grounding on the seafloor—and measure the extent to_______ those sounds contribute to the noise of the ocean. While they’re just now learning to listen, the sounds of ice could help them understand the behavior and breakup of icebergs and ice shelves as the poles warm_________ .

little    few    which    that    up

65)
One of the characteristics of ‘good’ information identified earlier was that it should be ‘balanced’. In an ideal world, ‘objective’ or ‘balanced’ information would present all the evidence for and against, and leave you to WEIGH this up and draw _______ . In the real world, however, we recognize that all information presents a position of interest, although this may not necessarily be intentional. Objectivity may therefore be an unachievable ideal. This means that the onus is on you as the reader and user of the information to develop a _________awareness of the positions represented in what you read, and to take________ of this when you interpret the information. In some cases, authors may explicitly express a particular viewpoint – this is perfectly valid as long as they are open about the perspective they represent. Hidden bias, whether or not it is ________, can be misleading.

deliberate        agreements    critical        report    conclusions    account

66) 
The Alpine Newt is native to much of central, continental Europe and_____ up the coasts of northeast France through to Holland but it does not_______ to have been native to the British Isles. As its name _________ it can be found in montane habitats up to 2,500 meters in altitude but it can also be abundant in lowlands, and it will use________ a of water bodies including both shallow and deep ponds and slow flowing streams (Griffiths, 1995).

suggests        occurs        appear        look        takes place    variety

67)
The ________decades of an artist’s life do not generally make the biographer’s heart beat faster, but Claude Monet is one of a _________ of painters who bucks the pattern of an irrelevant old age. While it’s true that by the time he was 73 he had ______ all the usual dragging baggage.

accumulated    closing        collected        few           handful


68)
The University of Maryland boasts 78 academic programs_______ in the top 25 nationally and 29 academic programs in the top 10 according to U.S. News and World report. By drawing top-notch faculty, attracting the brightest students and ________ in the quality of our academic programs, we are a force to reckon with on a national __________.


ranked        venture        foundation        investing        basis

 

69)
Academic writing is an expression of logic that is the product of thinking. This ________ that the writing that you produce is a reflection of your intellectual abilities. It ________into words your knowledge and your conceptual understanding and shows evidence of your ability to think critically.

intends        means         places           puts

70)

The supply of a thing, in the phrase “supply and demand," is the amount that will be offered for sale at each of a series of prices; the demand is the amount that will be bought at each of a series of prices. The principle that value depends on supply and demand means that in the case of nearly every commodity, more will be bought if the price is lowered, less will be bought if the price is _________. Therefore sellers, if they wish to induce buyers to take more of a commodity than they are already doing, must _________ its price; if they raise its price, they will sell less. If there is a general falling off if in demand — due, say, to trade depression — sellers will either have to reduce prices or put less on the ___________ ; they will not be able to sell the same _________at the same price.
Similarly with supply. At a certain price, a certain amount will be offered for sale, at a higher price more will be offered, at a lower priceless. If consumers want more, they must offer a higher price; if they want less, they will probably be able to force prices down. That is the first result of a change in demand or supply.

diminish    raised    amount    elevated    reduce    market

 

71)

Symbiosis is a biological _______ in which two species live in _________proximity to each other and interact regularly in such a way as to benefit one or both of the_________ . When both partners benefit, this variety of symbiosis is known as mutualism.

relationship        near        organisms        creatures          close


72)

Pre-Raphaelitism was Britain’s most significant and influential 19th-century art movement. Founded in 1848, it on a group of three young artists: William Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and John Everett Millais. These artists sought to revive English art by radically turning away from the old studio and bringing the painting into direct with nature. With an eye for absolute, every detail was now to have intense realist as well as meaning.

symbolic        accuracy        tradition        contact        convention    creatures        centered

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PTE Real Exam Questions-Reading- Fill in the blanks

Attention!!!-1st October 2019 Newly Updated