Reading- Reorder Paragraph

 

In re-order paragraphs, you are required to arrange to restore the original order of the text. The sentences are placed in random order. Put them in such a way that they make sense. Answers are provided at the bottom of the page.

 


1)

a) Unemployment touched 20 percent.
b)The Argentines withdrew 2.3$ billion from their bank accounts.
c) The finance minister put a cap of $ 2000 a month on cash withdrawals.
d)The trade union declared a strike.


2)
a) Since independence, every political party has played communal card whenever election time draws near.
b) In fact, the caste and communal cards have been fine-tuned to an art form in the political games that are played in this country.
c) And no political party can absolve itself on this count; worse, political parties take on board hoodlums and gangsters who use their clout in political circles to settle scores and extract money.

d) When each party carefully selects political candidates on the basis of religion or caste, it is encouraging and continuing the divide-and-rule tactics of its colonial masters.
e) This was seen when the Youth Congress(I) goons were given a free hand to terrorise Sikhs all over the country after Indira Gandhi's assassination.

 

3)

a) A value-based approach must form the backbone of the educational system and also the teacher education system.

b) It is a tough proposition when most of the other sectors are influenced by self-interest and material pursuits everywhere.
c) With all the limitations and deficiencies inherent in our educational system has to be achieved only through the combined effort of teachers and community.
d) Teacher preparation must ensure the development of commitment amongst teachers.
e) However, teacher education needs to emphasize that teachers alone can kindle value-based growth.


4)

a) In capitalism, wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few.
b) In the West, men are only capable of seeing the external aspects of things.
c) The resultant deprivations are variable even in the developed countries.
d) The domination of the capitalist class today is justified in the name of economic growth and population efficiency
e) In the US about 12 million people are homeless, one-third of the people cannot afford primary health care, 20 percent of the children live below the poverty line, and about 23 percent of the people are illiterate with no security of either job or life.


5)

a) The study goes on to profile Indian teens, segments them on their mindset, media preferences, attitudes and how they behave in the market place.
b) Teen personal durable ownership is up.
c)Thus, the presence of a teen in the home accelerate and influences the purchase of entertainment durables.
d) To a large extent, it also fulfills the need for a substitutionalized system of gathering information on the dynamic market segment on a regular basis.


6)

a) In reality, economic life is full of complementarities.

b) Indian thinking has traditionally been encumbered by a zero-sum view of the economy.
c) A government that facilitated private business was assumed to be working against the interest of the workers and the public sector.
d) I think even more urgent than privatizing existing state-owned firms is to allow the entry of private firms into sectors earlier reserved for the state.


7)

a) Everyone was flabbergasted by his success.

b) Earlier on, Dishu had applied his expectancy theory in a step by step process used mainly as a one-on-one approach between the manager and the employees.
c) It was not designed for entire organizations.
d) Nevertheless, Dishu organized a team and implemented, tested and gathered data to measure results in the corporate environment.
e) In his second book ‘Manage yourself’, Dishu explained how the expectancy theory convinced managers and employees that managing the individual works better than treating everyone the same.

 

8)

a) In 1979, Grenada witnessed the establishment of a socialist government by Maurice Bishop, which survived four years of US-engineered incursions.
b) This government was overthrown in an internal power struggle among left-wing groups and, within three weeks of the Bishop’s ouster and assassination, Reagan launched. 

c) Operation Urgent Fury against Grenada, claiming that the invasion was "forced on us by events that have no precedent in the eastern Caribbean."
d) Around 2,000 US Marines "fought" for a week, destroying a mental hospital, killing 84 Cubans building an airstrip, and 400 Grenadians.
d) This was duly appreciated, with some 7, 000 US servicemen being designated as heroes and given decorations.
f) In the end, Grenada, just like Cuba and Nicaragua, was no more than the Chomskian "threat of a good example" to other Third World countries in the region.


9)

a) In view of the higher risk, a firm contemplating foreign investment would naturally expect a higher rate of return.

b) A multinational company may be accused of 'profiteering' even when it may simply be following the sound financial practice of asking for a higher rate of return commensurate with risks characterizing the project.

d) Risk-stemming from fluctuations in exchange rate loans hover constantly on the horizon of foreign investment.
e) In addition, a foreign investment is subject to discriminatory treatment and selection control in various forms.


10)

a) The view that a mind can be reduced to patterns in behaviour is a hypothesis long abandoned.

b) The turning test, one may say, is seriously flawed.

c) Behaviour is just the evidence for the mind, not its very nature.
d) Thus you can act as if you are in pain and not really be in pain.


11) 

a) The Magian World View, in so far as it exists, has taken flight into science.

b) We have paid a terrible price for our education, such as it is.
c) We have educated ourselves into a world from which wonder has been banished.

d) Wonder is marvelous, but it is also cruel, cruel, cruel.
e) Of course, wonder is costly because it is the antithesis of the anxiously worshipped security.


12) 

a) It seems a bond rating tells you even less about the price that investors are willing to pay.

b) The credit rating agencies use legions of high trained analyst with access to top management.
c) Their meticulous reports giving ratings for corporate bonds are designed to give an accurate picture of the bonds riskiness and ultimately the probability of default.
d) Lately, the credit-rating agencies have struggled to keep up.


13) 
a) In terms of cargo handling efficiency, some of India's ports have lately undergone a sea change.
b) The impetus for change in cargo handling, after years of operational inefficiency, has come from new private sector facilitators.
c) And the government agrees this is having a cascading effect on the functioning of other ports.
d) Other ports, both major and minor, have spurred into action.


14) 

a) Ignorance is the opposite of knowledge, i.e., want of knowledge.

b) Entrepreneurial knowledge is essentially intuitive.
c) It involves seeing and realizing a vision of future markets, products and/or other opportunities.

d) Like some ancient priest-king, the entrepreneur ‘knows’ the future and leads his people.
e) To deal with uncertainty and ignorance economists have recognized the entrepreneur as possessing this non-rational form of knowledge.

 

15)

a) Many investors have been disappointed and frightened away.

b) Despite posting healthy profits, Volkswagen shares trade at a discount to peers due to bad reputation among investors.
c) A disastrous capital hike, an expensive foray into truck business and uncertainty about the reason for a share buyback have in recent years left invest
d) The main problem with Volkswagen is the past.
e) Volkswagen shares trade at about nine times the 2002 estimated earnings, compared to BMW's 19 and are the second cheapest in the sector.
 


16) 

a) The fiscal deficit has deteriorated.

b) Industry too is not ready to deliver growth, should even the government pursue the right policies.
c) The current reforms pace is too slow.

d) A good budget is one which makes a sincere attempt to change the policy environment.
e) There are big gaps in perception and capability of managers.
f) Government finances are terminally impaired with uncontrolled fiscal deficits.


17) 

a) In September 1522 Victoria, the sole survivor of the Armada, limped into the Spanish port San Lucar , manned by a skeleton crew of 15, so weak they could not talk

b) In September 1519 the Armada de Molucca of five ships and 250 sailors has set out from San lucar de Barrameda under the command of Fernando de Magellan
c) It was to sail to the spice islands of the Malayan Archipelago where they were to exchange an assortment of bells, mirrors and scissors for cinnamon and cloves.

d) So contrary to popular belief it was the crew of the Victoria who were the first men to have sailed around the globe.
e) Its cargo consisted of 38 sacks of spices and Magellan himself had been hacked to pieces on the beach of Mactan in the Phillipines


18)

a) The implications of this conflict will not be fully appreciated until we learn to distinguish between change and transformation.
b) More organizations today seek a transformation in their businesses, yet most of them think of and talk about managing change.
c) The characteristics of transformation are positive and actually creative. They stem from a newfound sense of purposefulness, once a higher purpose is discovered.
d) Change is characterized by 'reactivity'. Most of us live in the domain of change both as individuals and as organizations.
e) Clearly, we all aspire to live in the domain of transformation even if we presently are in the domain of change.


19) 

a) In the summer of 1992, the first year I became president of XYZ, I decided to take a two-week vacation.

b) And it kept right on ringing with questions from people back at the office about the most mundane matters.
c) But as soon I arrived at my country house, the telephone began ringing.
d) Of course, sitting out in the country I possessed less information than anyone else at headquarters about was going on, but they called me anyway.


20) 

a) Priority sectors include agriculture, small scale industries, housing, exports, etc.

b) Economics say that a market has failed when the market does not provide efficient outcomes for society.
c) The government of India directs substantial bank credit to what it deems are 'priority sectors' for the Indian economy.
d) It is not clear how sectors get identified for the priority tag, as there is no clearly articulated logic.
e) In my view, a priority sector should be an area of market failure.
f) Markets fail for a variety of reasons.


21) 

a) Trade started from person to person but grew to involve different towns in different lands.

b) People found work in transporting the goods or selling them.

c) Eventually, people got a greater variety of things to choose from.

d) Merchants soon grew rich as the demand for products increased.


22)

a) Wal-Mart has increased its Procter & Gamble diaper business by 50 percent and cut inventory by 70 percent because of this collaboration.

b) They wanted to explore how they could jointly apply quality management principles to the disposable diaper business.

c) Several years ago, senior executives from Procter & Gamble and Wal-Mart met for two days.
d) As a result of this meeting, a team of Procter & Gamble employees moved to Bentonville, Arkansas, Wal-Mart's headquarters, to work with Wal-Mart executives on productivity and quality issues.


23) 

a) The situations in which violence occurs and the nature of that violence tends to be clearly defined at least in theory, as in the proverbial Irishman’s question: ‘Is this a private fight or can anyone join in?’

b) However binding the obligation to kill, members of feuding families engaged in mutual massacre will be genuinely appalled if by some mischance a bystander or outsider is killed.
c) So the actual risk to outsiders, though no doubt higher than our societies, is calculable.
d) Probably the only uncontrolled applications of force are those of social superiors to social inferiors and even here there are probably some rules.


24)

a) Advertising then tends to focus significantly on the announcement of in-store promotions and events, where the payoffs in terms of immediate increases in customer entry and average cash memo size are more visible.

b) Mass marketing by Indian retail chains has hitherto been the exception rather than the rule.

c) The focused brand image which leads to pithy, punchy advertising has been difficult because most retailers have not been focused in terms of their own vision for their retail brand. Most advertising has tended to focus on the presence of locations or the range.
d) The lack of significant players with national reach is only one of the factors that explain the relatively low attention given to mass marketing by the retail sector in India.
e) The inherent expectations of a high short-term return on advertising investment that is common to most traders who are attempting to scale up operations is not conducive to a long-term consistency in advertising direction.

25) 

a) Thrills, ranging from video games to burgers cover the rest.

b) The bigger your cafe, the more is the need for an additional mean of income.

c) Some cafes can get away with being plain vanilla.
d) But others cannot.
e) This is because the returns from browsing cover only a percentage of your costs.
f) These fruits will make your clients spend more time with you and also add to your profits.


26)   

a) Think back to the last time you were discussing completing an assignment with one of your colleagues: you may have suggested that you both come in on Saturday to finish the work and your colleague may have counter-proposed that you could stay back on Friday evening and finish it instead.

b) Research conducted across several negotiators ranging from sales negotiators to purchase and labour negotiators shows that average negotiators tend to counter propose more often than skilled negotiators.
c) This happens in everyday life too.
e) A difference in the frequency of usage of counter proposing between skilled and average negotiators suggests that counter proposing may not be, as effective one tends to think it would be.
e) I may have suggested that my son buy a pair of trousers at a certain price whereas my son would have made a counterproposal that he would rather buy two pairs at half price each.


27) 

a) Marx thought that religion was the opiate, because it soothed people’s pain and suffering and prevented them from rising in rebellion.

b) If Karl Marx was alive today, he would say that television is the opiate of the people.
c) Television and similar entertainments are even more of an opiate because of their addictive tendencies.
d) If you are used to having your stimulation come in from outside, your mind never develops its own habits of thinking and reflecting.


28) 

a) Foods are overwhelming the most advertised group of all consumer products in the U.S.

b) Food manufacturers spend more on advertising than any other manufacturing group and the nation's grocery stores rank first among all retailers.
c) Food product lead in expenditures for network and spot television advertisements, discount coupons, trading stamps, contests, and other forms of premium advertising.
d) In other media- newspapers, magazines, newspaper supplements, billboard and radio, food advertising expenditures rank near the top.


29) 

a) Electronic transactions are happening in closed group networks and the Internet. Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet to emerge.

b) Cash transactions offer both privacy and anonymity as it does not contain information that can be used to identify the parties nor the transaction history.

c) To support e-commerce, we need effective payment systems and secure communication channels and data integrity.
d) Moreover, money is worth what it is because we have come to accept it.
e) The whole structure of traditional money is built on faith and so will electronic money have to be.


30)  

a) The idea is to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity and depending upon the economic foundation, that productive capacity is different in each case.

b) With regard to defense, the purpose of the military is to defend the nation and be prepared to do battle with its enemy.
c) How do you do battle with your enemy?

d) Now in the information era, destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means destroying the information infrastructure.
e) So in the agrarian era, if you need to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity, what you want to do is bum his fields, or if you’re really vicious, salt them.
f) But in the industrial era destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means bombing the factories which are located in the cities.

31)

a) John F. Kennedy, the Democratic victory in the election of 1960, was at 43, the youngest man ever to win the presidency.
b) In his first inaugural address he concluded with an eloquent plea; "Ask not what your country can do for you--- ask what you can do for your country."
c) On television, in a series of debates with opponent Richard Nixon, he appeared able, articulate and energetic.
d) In the campaign, he spoke of moving aggressively into the new decade, for 'the New Frontier is here whether we seek it or not'.

 


32)

a) Nothing is too small for his attention.

b) Mr D Gautam's personality sets him apart the rest.
c) He has a fanatical devotion to detail.
d) This is what makes him a different guy.

 

 


33) 

a) Even as Indians leftists think Bill Clinton is coming to take over India, Indian companies are preparing to take over American ones on a gargantuan scale.
b) To put this in perspective, recall that when Chandan sold his Parle brands to Coca-Cola amidst much swadeshi wringing of hands, he got a reported Rs 200 crore.

c) Infosys and Wipro, our two most glamorous infotech companies, both want automatic permission from FIPB to take over foreign companies worth - hold your breath - $ 15 billion each.
d) Now Infosys and Wipro propose of Rs 54,000 crore each.

34) 

a) Sony has been valued at around Rs 800 crore.

b) IBM is a leading consultancy firm.
c) This valuation has been done by IBM.
d) They have relied on the excess value approach.

35)
a) There is a story about a wealthy who was once offered all the land he could walk on in a day, provided he comes back by sundown to the point where he started.

b) Even though he was tired, he kept going all afternoon because he did not want to miss this once in a lifetime opportunity to gain more wealth.
c) To get a head start, early the next morning the farmer started covering ground quickly because he wanted to get as much land as he could.
d) Late in the afternoon, he realized the condition he had to fulfill to get the land was to get back to the starting point by sundown.


36) 
a) The general impressions that skilled negotiators seem to convey is they are people who keep their cards close to their chest and do not reveal their feelings.
b) Feelings are in themselves not observable and Huthwaite's researchers could not measure them directly.
c) Hence, they used a surrogate method- they countered the number of times that the negotiators talked about their feelings or motives.
d) The results showed that contrary to the general impressions, skilled negotiators are more likely to give information about internal events that are average negotiators.
e) This contrasts sharply with the amount of information given about external events such as facts, clarifications and general expressions of opinion.

 

37)  

a) The main difference is that efficiency is a ration and effectiveness is not.
b) The Japanese are very efficient and such concepts as "just in time" are a witness to their efficiency.
c) But they reach efficiency in a different way than American businesses.
d) They reach efficiency through the route of effectiveness.


38) 

a) Accused in the Rs 50 crore Before guns kickback case.
b) Dubai-based Win Gautam who is the
c) Arrived here on Sunday by an early morning flight.
d) He is scheduled to appear in the trial court By Wednesday.


39) 

a) Here was a commission whose members worked very hard, did exemplary research and homework, before coming up with a list of recommendations that balanced economic efficiency with safety nets for disadvantaged labour.

b) It reminds us of the political shenanigans during the implementation of the Fifth Pay Commission.
c) How many times have you heard experts, politicians and the finance minister refer to the implementation of the pay hikes following the commission's report as the singular cause for the increase in government expenditure?
d) They argue that it is this, which has led to bankruptcy in many states.
e) Barring P. Chidambaram, who was then the finance minister, every single political party and politician opposed the implementation of the recommendations and are directly responsible for the current fiscal crises in the Centre and the states.


40) 

a) By the time he got to Linjeflug four years later, he had learned many lessons, in fact, he began his second stint as top dog by calling the entire company together in a hanger and asking for help, a far cry from his barking out commands just 48 months back.
b) This book is chock-a-block full of intrusive stories and practical advice, describing Carton’s activities at Vingresor (where he assumed his first presidency at age 32), Linjeflug, and SAS in particular.
c) He began at Vingresor as an order giver, not a listener – neither to his people nor to his customers and made every mistake in the book.
d) At SAS, he arrived at a time crisis.

 

41)
a) At one time I was giving a seminar for the British marketing department of Ford, the biggest Ford operation outside of Detroit.

b) I suggested that Ford should buy up a company called NCP, which owned most of the car parks in the city centers throughout the UK.
c) We were discussing competing in the European market.
d) If NCP became a Ford company, a notice could be placed at the entrance to all city centers car parks indicating that only Ford cars could use them.


42) 
a) It is clear that there is no consensus on economic reform.
b) Otherwise, the Congress would not have opposed PSU disinvestment today.
c) Nor would allies of ruling NDA opposes privatization.
d) All this would stop India from becoming the next superpower.


43) 

a) What came out was very large garland made out of currency notes.

b) When the RBI governor came to inaugurate the new printing press, the local unit of the BJP handed him a gift-wrapped box
c) The unsuspecting governor opened the box in full view of the gathering
d) There was a twist – the notes were all as tattered as notes could get.


44) 

a) The bank's basic job is risk absorption- it takes money, which has a lot of attached risk, and provides the customer an assured rate of return.

b) Let us take a look at the manner in which the traditional bank adds value to the customer.
c) Further, as only a small portion of the actual deposit base is retained with the bank in a liquid form, the very survival of the bank lies in building enough trust with its clientele so as to prevent the occurrence of a sizeable chunk of simultaneous customer withdrawal (a run on the bank.

d) The ability to deploy invested funds into productive economic activity at a higher rate of return, hence contributing to the prosperity of both the econ.
e) The ability to retain deposits, in itself, is not enough to ensure long-term survival and growth.

 

 

45)

a) Thus begins the search for relief: painkillers, ice, yoga, herbs, even surgery.

b) Most computer users develop disorders because they ignore warnings like tingling fingers, a numb hand or a sore shoulder
c) They keep pointing and dragging until tendons chafe and scar tissue forms, along with bad habits that are almost impossible to change
d) But cures are elusive, because repetitive stress injuries present a bag of ills that often defy easy diagnosis.

46)
a) A man of paradoxes, Menon remained an enigma.

b) His political career came to an abrupt end with China's military operation.
c) He attracted as repelled.
d) He was responsible for the debacle.

47) 
a) Over the years, I have had the opportunities to observe and understand the thought processes behind the ads that have been flooding both the print and the TV media.

b) There is an increasing attempt by most companies to be seen as cool and funky.

c) Another reason could be the burgeoning number of companies, which means an exponential increase in the number of ads that are being made.
d) Although there is a huge shift in the quality of ads that we come across on a daily basis-- thanks essentially to improvement in technology--I somehow can't help but feel that the quality of communication of the message has become diluted.
e) Proportionally, the number of ads that lack in quality, has gone up exponentially as well!!

48)

a) A case in the point is the hefty penalty of US $10,000 slapped on the Indian Body-Building d) Federation for not fulfilling its commitment for holding the Asian Championships in Mumbai in October.

b) The potential exchanges between the officials of IBBF and the Maharashtra Body-Building Association has all the trappings of a drama we are accustomed to.

c) It is a matter of deep regret and concern that the sports administrators often cause more harm to the image of the country than sportsmen and sportswomen do through their dismal performances.
d) In the case of sports persons, there is room for some sympathy, but the apathy of the administrators, which has even led to sanctions from international bodies, is unpardonable.
 

49)

a) America’, first published in 1835, remains one of the most trenchant and insightful analyses of American social and political practices.

b) Tocqueville was far too shrewd an observer to be uncritical about the US, but his verdict was fundamentally positive.

c) No visitor to the US left a more enduring record of his travels and observations than the French writer and political theorist Alexis de Tocqueville, whose ‘Democracy in
d) "The government of democracy brings the notion of political rights to the level of the humblest citizens," he wrote," just as the dissemination of wealth brings the notion of property within the reach of all the members of the community".
e) Nonetheless, Tocqueville was only one of the first of a long line of thinkers to worry whether such rough equality could survive in the face of a growing factory system that threatened to create divisions between industrial workers and a new business elite.


50)
a) 1971 war changed the political geography of the subcontinent.
b) It also profoundly altered the geo-strategic situation in South-East Asia.
c) Despite the significance of the event. There has been no serious book about the conflict.
d) Surrender at Dacca aims to fill this gap.


51) 
a) According to experts, feeding birds is probably the most common way in which people interact with wild animals today. More than 50 million Americans engage in the practice, collectively undertaking an unwitting experiment on a vast scale.
b) Is what we’re doing good or bad for birds?
c) Recently, researchers at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology sought to answer this question, analyzing nearly three decades’ worth of data from a winter-long survey called Project Feeder Watch.
d) Preliminary results suggest the species visiting our feeders the most are faring exceptionally well in an age when one-third of the continent’s birds need urgent conservation.
e) Still, what are the consequences of skewing the odds in favor of the small subset of species inclined to eat at feeders? What about when the bird we’re aiding is invasive, like our house finch?


52) 
a) Why Applied Computer Science?
b) Our Applied Computer Science major is all about giving you the skills to solve computer-related problems.
c) With rapid advances in technology and new applications being developed constantly, it is hard to say what those problems will be.
d) One thing is for sure, though, it is going to be exciting finding out.

53)
a) Not all wildlife is created equal in our eyes.
b) Take the earthworm, which doesn’t have the widespread appeal of larger, more charismatic animals such as gorillas, tigers or pandas.
c) Worms are never going to get a strong “cute response”, and they won’t ever be the face of a conservation campaign.
d) But what Darwin rightly recognized is that – panda fans avert your eyes– worm conservation is much more important once we factor in their provision of what we now call “ecosystem services”, which are crucial to human survival.

54) 

a) Changing existing behavior can be a difficult task, but with the help of these strategies, new behaviors can become habitual, facilitating a long-term sustained healthy lifestyle.

b) Perhaps most importantly, we look to the field of behavioral science for strategies that people can use to overcome those hurdles and to initiate lifestyle changes.

c) Many of us know what we should be doing to live healthily, yet many of us struggle to actually actively manage our health.
d) In “Easter Said than Done”, we set out some of the reasons why we might find it hard to live in a healthy way, exercising, eating well, getting adequate sleep, and checking for early warning symptoms.
 

55)

a) Descriptions of these planetary bodies as terrestrial in-kind demonstrate the seventeenth-century intellectual shift from the Aristotelian to the Copernican.

b) During this period of the scientific revolution, a new literary genre arose, namely that of the scientific cosmic voyage.

c) The expanding influence of Copernicanism through the seventeenth century transformed not only the natural philosophic leaning of astronomers but also the store of conceptual material accessible to writers of fiction.
d)Scientists and writers alike constructed fantastical tales in which fictional characters journey to the moon, sun, and planets.
e) In do doing, they discover that these once remote world are themselves earth-like in character.

56)
a) The Canadian Institute for Neutron Scattering will be holding the eleventh neutron summer school at Chalk River on May 8 – 13, 2011.

b) The theory will be presented in a way that should be understood by people in any of these fields.
c) The aim of the school is to cover a wide range of topics associated with thermal neutron scattering, including powder diffraction, stress analysis, texture, reflectometry, and small-angle neutron scattering together with the underlying theory associated with neutron scattering.
d) For more information, see the Canadian Institute for Neutron Scattering's Neutron Summer School.

57) 

a) The EU has tried to solve both problems by sending its fishermen to West Africa. Since 1979 it has struck agreements with the government of Senegal, granting our fleets access to its waters.

b) The European Union has two big fish problems.
c) One is that, partly as a result of its failure to manage them properly, its own fisheries can no longer meet European demand.
d) More importantly, its governments won’t confront their fishing lobbies and decommission all the surplus boats.
e) As a result, Senegal’s marine ecosystem has started to go the same way as ours.

58)

a) It necessarily embodies and values resilience, understanding, community and social justice.

b) Hip hop emerged as a reaction to the gang culture and violence of the South Bronx in the 1970s, and daily experiences of poverty, racism, exclusion, crime, violence, and neglect.
c) Without these, Hip Hop culture would never have been, and it is because these values remain at its core that Hip Hop is such a powerful agent of positive social change around the world.
d) Yet, the hip hop project is not yet free from these difficult circumstances.


59)

a) While the west side’s view wasn’t quite so impressive, the engineers generously chalked that up to centuries of dirt and grime.

b) This past Sunday, April 9th, the railway’s current engineers decided to test the rumor once and for all. They weren’t disappointed.

c) Ever since the completion of the Great Western Railway, in the 1840s, intrigue has swirled around the Box Tunnel, a long, steep bypass near Bath, England.
d) The question was this: did the railway’s creator, Isambard Kingdom Brunel, really have the tunnel carved in such a way that when the sun rose on his birthday—April 9th—it would be flooded with light?
e) “When you look from the east portal, the cutting provides a lovely V-shape,” communications manager Paul Gentleman told the Guardian.

60) 

a) Rugby in Wales is a particularly strong example of this phenomenon, being perhaps the main thing that unites people in Wales.

b) In many ways, rugby in Wales defines what Wales is and what people in Wales share.

c) Citizens commonly identify with their nation in the context of major sporting events: imagining the nation is easier when there is a national team playing another nation (Hobsbawm, 1990).
d) From outside Wales, too, it is the rugby that commonly defines the nation – with the sport providing both widespread interest and one of the few positive associations of outsiders’ perceptions of Wales.

 

61) 
a) New Ventures is a program that helps entrepreneurs in some of the world’s most dynamic, emerging economies-- Brazil, China, Colombia, India, Indonesia, and Mexico.
b) We have facilitated more than $203 million in investment and worked with 250 innovative businesses whose goods and services produce clear, measurable environmental benefits, such as clean energy, efficient water use, and sustainable agriculture.
c) Often they also address the challenges experienced by the world’s poor.
d) For example, one of the companies we work within China, called Ecostar, refurbishes copy machines from the United States and re-sells or leases them for 20 percent less than a branded photocopier.


62) 
a) Dependence, rivalry, envy, emulation: painting and photography, like members of a dysfunctional yet inseparable family, just cannot cast off lineages of influence and appropriation.
b) Photography, from its appearance in 1839, looked to painting for fundamental models of depiction.
c) Yet it threw the older medium into crisis, removing at a stroke painting’s unique capacity to bear witness.
d) How these two media leapfrogged through the Victorian age, defining themselves against one another, is the subject of Tate Britain’s exhibition Painting with Light.

63) 
a) Sometime about a million and a half years ago, some forgotten genius of the hominid world did an unexpected thing. He (or very possibly she) took one stone and carefully used it to shape another.
b) The result was a simple teardrop-shaped hand-ax, but it was the world's first piece of advanced technology.
c) It was so superior to existing tools that soon others were following the inventor's lead and making hand-axes of their own.
d) Eventually, whole societies existed that seemed to do little else.

64)
a) The physical location of a restaurant in the competitive landscape of the city has long been known as a major factor in its likely success or failure.
b) Once restaurants are established in such environments, they can do little about their location.
c) All they can do is work to improve customer access to their premises.
d) Restaurateurs often do this by engaging in battles with local authorities about car parking.

65)
a) A Technology for recording brainwaves in wild animals awakens a more sophisticated understanding of the function of sleep. Studies using miniature sleep recording devices known as neurologists have already challenged several long-held beliefs about the sleeping habits of sloths and birds.
b) Three-toed sloths, for example, sleep for less than once thought.
c) And male sandpipers can go almost entirely without sleep during the three-week breeding season, helping maximize success at that time.
d) Now John Lesku of La Trobe University in Melbourne and his colleagues are using neurologist to investigate whether light pollution interferes with the circadian rhythms of tammar wallabies in Australia.

66) 
a) In 1997 Lisa McKeon, a physical scientist with the United States Geological Survey who works in the park, came across a pair of historic photographs depicting the glaciers she studies.
b) Over the years, countless photos of the majestic park have been snapped, and many of those have become part of the park’s official archive, spanning over a century.
c) It was a lightbulb moment: Why not use the old photos to create a timeline of the morphing glaciers, and add new photos every year?
d) The Repeat Photography Project was born.

67)
a) According to the Australian Institute of Family Studies in 2014, a 11 old boy was unable to live with his family, due to child abuse.
b) But upbringing in the foster care system means he has no-one to help him. It's not his fault, yet he is being penalized for something he can't change.
c) He went to two schools while he was in foster care and one was Barr Beacon School, formerly Barr Beacon Language College, is a mixed comprehensive for foster children.
d) Children like him involved with child protective services were shown to have consistently low average math and reading standardized test scores.
e) One of the recommendations was to send him to his relatives who were willing to take care until he was 18. This resulted a positive outcome in academic achievement.

68)
a) Americans bought far fewer new homes last month, according to government data released on Wednesday that showed sales fell at the fastest rate in 13 years.
b) House prices also eased as the median cost of a new home fell 2.1 percent from a year ago to $239,800.
c) The pace of sales fell to 937,000 from a rate of 1.1m the previous month, while inventories of unsold homes stood at 537,000.
d) Stephen Stanley, the chief economist at RBS Greenwich Capital, said: "Builders will probably have to continue to work off bloated stocks of finished homes for most of 2007."
e) However, the Federal Reserve views the overhang of unsold homes as a cause for concern but remains curiously.

69)
a) Education scholars generally agree that mayors can help failing districts.
b) But they are starting to utter warnings.
c) Last summer the editors of the Harvard Educational Review warned that mayoral control could reduce parents' influence on schools.
d) One pointed to Mr. Bloomberg's aggressive style as an example of what not to do.

70)
a) Karl Marx is arguably most of the most famous political philosopher of all time, but he was also one of the great foreign correspondents of the nineteenth century.
b) During his 11 years writing for the New York Tribune – their collaboration began in 1852 -Marx tackled an abundance of topics, from issues of class and the state to world affairs.
c) Particularly moving pieces' highlight social inequality and starvation in Britain, while others explore his groundbreaking views on the slave and opium trades 一 Marx believed Western powers relied on these and would stop at nothing to protect their interests.
d) Above all, Marx’s fresh perspective on nineteenth-century events encouraged his readers to think, and his writing is surprisingly relevant today.

71)
a) We'll likely have two billion more mouths to feed by mid-century — more than nine billion people.
b) But sheer population growth isn't the only reason we'll need more food.
c) The spread of prosperity across the world, especially in China and India, is driving increased demand for meat, eggs, and dairy, boosting pressure to grow more corn and soybeans to feed more cattle, pigs, and chickens.
d) If these trends continue, the double whammy of population growth and richer diets will require us to roughly double the number of crops we grow by 2050.

72)
a) It was taken over by Mittal, a Dutch-registered company run from London by its biggest single shareholder, Lakshmi Mittal, an Indian who started his first business in Indonesia.
b) The takeover battle raged for six months before Arcelor's bosses finally listened to shareholders who wanted the board to accept Mittal's third offer.
c) The story tells us two things about European business, both positive.
d) First, shareholder activism is increasing in a continent where until recently it was depressingly rare.
Second, and more important, the Arcelor Mittal deal demonstrates Europe's deepening integration into the global economy.

73)
a) Sea level rise led to 36 thousand people died every year.
b) This number can be raised if sea level ceaseless goes up, scientists notified.
c) According to the research, if sea-level rise 50 centimeters, 86 million people will die.
d) If sea level rises 1 meter, 168 million people will die all around the world.

74)
a) Road safety analyses of driver behavior have traditionally concentrated on the role of the male driver.
b) While this is in keeping with the fact that the majority of drivers involved in fatal crashes are male, the relative proportion of fatal crashes involving female drivers has been steadily increasing over many decades.
c) Thus, while virtually all drivers killed 45 years ago were male, the percentage of female driver fatalities had risen to 13% in 1970 and in recent years females have accounted for between 22% and 27% of all driver deaths.
d) In view of this situation, this report examines differences between male and female drivers in terms of travel characteristics, fatal crash risk, fatal crash characteristics and factors affecting injury outcome.

75)
a) A report conducted to examine the difference between male and female drivers in term of travel characteristics and found that fatal crash rush occurred during morning periods.
b) This is the data with road safety analyses that most accidents occurred at the periods as early as 5 AM in the morning to 7 AM.
c) In particular, reckless behavior which has traditionally concentrated on the role of the young drivers.
d) Laws need enforcement to be effective and various program should target areas of traffic safety, young drivers training crash reduction, and injury reduction.

76)
a) The “Festival in The Desert” is a celebration of the musical heritage of the Touareg, a fiercely independent nomadic people.
b) It is held annually near Essakane, an oasis some 40 miles north-west of Timbuktu, the ancient city on the Niger River.
c) Reaching it tests endurance, with miles of impermanent sand tracks to negotiate.
d) The reward of navigating this rough terrain comes in the form of a three-day feast of music and dance.

77)
a) Over the years many human endeavors have had the benefit of language.
b) In particular, a written language can convey a lot of information about past events, places, people and things.
c) But it is difficult to describe music in words, and even more difficult to specify a tune.
d) It was the development of standard musical notation in the 11th century that allowed music to be documented in a physical form.
e) Now music could be communicated efficiently, and succeeding generations would know something about the music of their ancestors.

78)
a) Copernicus probably hit upon his main idea sometime between 1508 and 1514.
b) For years, however, he delayed publication of his controversial work, which contradicted all the authorities of the time.
c) The historic book that contains the final version of his theory, De revolution orbium coelestium libri vi ("Six Books Concerning the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs"), did not appear in print until 1543, the year of his death.
d) According to legend, Copernicus received a copy as he was dying, on May 24, 1543.

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